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  • Sex ratios of Metapenaeus kutchensis George, George and Rao, 1963 and Parapenaeopsis sculptilis (Heller, 1862) in the Gulf of Kachchh, Western India.

    Pravez, Rishad; Krishnan, Smita; Mansuri, A.P. (1992-06-30)
    Sex ratio data of two species of penaeid prawns Metapenaeus kutchensis George, George and Rao, ‎‎1963 and Parapenaeopsis sculptilis (Heller, 1862), occurring in the Gulf of Kachchh, were ‎statistically analyzed. A preponderance of females was observed in both the species and the ratio ‎of male to female for both years combined for M. kutchensis and P. sculptilis was found to be ‎‎1:1.5 and 1:2.7, respectively. Chi-square analysis revealed significant difference in the sex ratios of ‎the two species.‎
  • Re-description of Lupocyclus philippinensis (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: ‎Portunidae) Semper in Nauck, 1880 from the coastal waters of Karachi, Pakistan.‎

    Naz, Farah; Saher, Noor Us; Osmani, Hamid Badar (2019-12-31)
    A specimen of the Lupocyclus philippinensis Semper in Nauck, 1880 commonly known ‎as scissor swimming crab, was recently found in by catch of shrimp trawling and ‎included as part of continuous taxonomic studies on crabs found in the coastal waters of ‎Pakistan. The discovery is significant because it found after a long time. Redescription of ‎L. philippinensis following the discovery of a female caught at Karachi fish harbor, ‎Pakistan by Leene and Buitendijk (1952).‎
  • Community structure and seasonal distribution of intertidal macrofauna from two rocky ‎shores of Karachi coast.

    Ali, Qadeer Mohammad; Ghory‎, Farhana S.; Ahmed, Quratulan; Siddique, Saima; Mubarak, Shumaila; Memon, Sehrish (2019-12-31)
    Rocky shores are considered heterogeneous environments due to their composition and ‎structure. Therefore, they support numerous habitats for flora and fauna. Organisms ‎found on rocky shores are facing intense physicochemical conditions during tidal ‎changes from upper to lower intertidal zones. Total (N=1888) specimens were collected ‎on seasonal basis from intertidal zone during low tide from two rocky sites of Karachi ‎coast, Buleji and Sunehri during January 2017 to December 2017. The highest number ‎of individuals (N=1041), were recorded from Buleji than Sunehri (N= 847). The seasonal ‎abundance in Mollusca were measured as (36.84%), (63.67%), (25.08) and (40.38%) ‎from Buleji while from Sunehri (45.16 %), (46.01%), (48.65) and (42.79 %) during pre-‎monsoon, south-west monsoon, post monsoon and north-east monsoon season ‎respectively. Group Arthropoda, Mollusca and Echinodermata were shows the highest ‎abundance of the species at both sites as compare to other groups. The highest diversity ‎index from Sunehri (H'=0.64) was measured in north-east monsoon season meanwhile, ‎‎(H'=0.61) was measured in post monsoon season from Buleji coast. Evenness index ‎‎(J'=0.25) in pre-monsoon season from Buleji and (J'=0.28) in south-west monsoon season ‎from Sunehri coast . Season shows the great abundance of species as compare to other ‎seasons. No significant correlation was observed in between seasons, water temperature ‎and salinity with macrofauna groups at both sites. ‎
  • Empirical use of growth, mortality and temperature data for anchovy.

    Bilgin, Sabri (2019-12-31)
    To estimate the empirical relationships in anchovy, the instantaneous natural mortality ‎rate (M) calculated from von Bertalanffy Growth Function (VBGF) parameters, ‎maximum total length (Lmax) and sea surface temperature (T,°C) were reviewed in the ‎Black Sea. Empirical equations were presented for evaluation of M data in their ‎relationships to VBGF parameters, T and Lmax. Based on biological consideration and ‎regressional definition, it was recommended to use following formulas for estimating of ‎natural mortality rate of small pelagic fish such as anchovy. M = 0.3237 + 1.3174*(K) - ‎‎0.0036*(L∞) - 0.0117*(T); M = 0.2639 + 1.3676*(K) - 0.0003*(Lmax) - 0.0124*(T).‎
  • Artificial neural networks model biometric features of marine fish sand smelt.‎

    Benzer, Semra; Benzer, Recep (2019-12-31)
    In this study was investigated some biometric properties of the sand smelt with ANN’s, ‎Atherina boyeri Risso, 1810, population in Yamula Dam Lake. Twenty-three ‎morphometric characters of samples were measured. The total length of individuals ‎which were caught between 6.40 and 10.20 cm, and their weight (W) were ranged ‎between 1.50 and 7.31 g. The effect of Artificial Neural Networks was investigated in ‎predicting the statistical of fishery industry. The present study provides the first ‎information on the biometric properties of Atherina boyeri in Yamula Dam Lake by ‎Artificial Neural Networks.‎
  • Community structure and seasonal distribution of intertidal macrofauna from two rocky shores of Karachi coast

    Ali, Qadeer Mohammad; Ghory, Farhana S.; Ahmed, Quratulan; Siddique, Saima; Mubarak, Shumaila; Memon, Sehrish (2019)
    Rocky shores are considered heterogeneous environments due to their composition and structure. Therefore, they support numerous habitats for flora and fauna. Organisms found on rocky shores are facing intense physicochemical conditions during tidal changes from upper to lower intertidal zones. Total (N=1888) specimens were collected on seasonal basis from intertidal zone during low tide from two rocky sites of Karachi coast, Buleji and Sunehri during January 2017 to December 2017. The highest number of individuals (N=1041), were recorded from Buleji than Sunehri (N= 847). The seasonal abundance in Mollusca were measured as (36.84%), (63.67%), (25.08) and (40.38%) from Buleji while from Sunehri (45.16 %), (46.01%), (48.65) and (42.79 %) during pre-monsoon, south-west monsoon, post monsoon and north-east monsoon season respectively. Group Arthropoda, Mollusca and Echinodermata were shows the highest abundance of the species at both sites as compare to other groups. The highest diversity index from Sunehri (H'=0.64) was measured in north-east monsoon season meanwhile, (H'=0.61) was measured in post monsoon season from Buleji coast. Evenness index (J'=0.25) in pre-monsoon season from Buleji and (J'=0.28) in south-west monsoon season from Sunehri coast. Season shows the great abundance of species as compare to other seasons. No significant correlation was observed in between seasons, water temperature and salinity with macrofauna groups at both sites.
  • Artificial neural networks model biometric features of marine fish sand smelt

    Benzer, Semra; Benzer, Recep (2019)
    In this study was investigated some biometric properties of the sand smelt with ANN’s, Atherina boyeri Risso, 1810, population in Yamula Dam Lake. Twenty-three morphometric characters of samples were measured. The total length of individuals which were caught between 6.40 and 10.20 cm, and their weight (W) were ranged between 1.50 and 7.31 g. The effect of Artificial Neural Networks was investigated in predicting the statistical of fishery industry. The present study provides the first information on the biometric properties of Atherina boyeri in Yamula Dam Lake by Artificial Neural Networks.
  • Empirical use of growth, mortality and temperature data for anchovy

    Bilgin, Sabri (2019)
    To estimate the empirical relationships in anchovy, the instantaneous natural mortality rate (M) calculated from von Bertalanffy Growth Function (VBGF) parameters, maximum total length (Lmax) and sea surface temperature (T,°C) were reviewed in the Black Sea. Empirical equations were presented for evaluation of M data in their relationships to VBGF parameters, T and Lmax. Based on biological consideration and regressional definition, it was recommended to use following formulas for estimating of natural mortality rate of small pelagic fish such as anchovy. M = 0.3237 + 1.3174*(K) - 0.0036*(L∞) - 0.0117*(T); M = 0.2639 + 1.3676*(K) - 0.0003*(Lmax) - 0.0124*(T).
  • Re-description of Lupocyclus philippinensis (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Portunidae) Semper in Nauck, 1880 from the coastal waters of Karachi, Pakistan

    Osmani, Hamid Badar; Naz, Farah; Saher, Noor Us (2019)
    A specimen of the Lupocyclus philippinensis Semper in Nauck, 1880 commonly known as scissor swimming crab, was recently found in by catch of shrimp trawling and included as part of continuous taxonomic studies on crabs found in the coastal waters of Pakistan. The discovery is significant because it found after a long time. Redescription of L. philippinensis following the discovery of a female caught at Karachi fish harbor, Pakistan by Leene and Buitendijk (1952).
  • Benthic assemblages for ecological evaluation of Bardawil Lagoon, Mediterranean Sea, Egypt

    El komi, Mohamed Mohamed (2019)
    Bardawil Lagoon is the only highly saline oligotrophic lagoon in Egypt, has an area of ca. 650 km2 with water depths ranged 0.3m to 3m and economically important in terms of fish production. It is the optimum zone getting migratory birds in winter. It is separated from the Mediterranean Sea by a narrow sandy shelf (90 km length, and 22 km width). Ecological evaluation of benthic communities in Bardawil Lagoon to follow-up study of the distribution of benthic study at 12 selected sampling sites representing different environmental habitats for long periods through the project of Environmental Study Wetlands OF North Egyptians Lakes where samples were collected seasonally (2010-2015) and semi-annually (2015 - 2019). The results and data analysis indicated that the distribution, composition and dominance of macro benthic organisms in Lake Bardawil were composed mainly of Ostracoda, Polychaeta, Sea grasses, Bivalvia, Insecta larvae communities and dominated the constituent of bottom fauna. The variations in the benthic biomass were the heaviest at sites elRaodh and meddle elRaodh representing 1354 and 1105 g/m2 which corresponding respectively to 18.2 % and 14.9% of the annual average of benthic biomass (619 g/m2). Regional variations abundance of the benthic structure was highest at sites elTelol and elRaodh representing 3486 ind/m2 and 3635 ind/m2 which corresponding respectively to 14.8% and 15.3% of the annual average of benthic density (1978 ind/m2). Sites of sampling study were evenly spread (J’ > 0.8) at most sites except at elTelol and elRaodh also, high diversity (H’ > 3.00) was at the most sites and show lower value at sites elTelol, elGals, Boughaz I, elNaser, and Raba`a while, Swartz Dominance indexes of number of 5 species over 75% showed low values at sites elGals, Boughaz I, elNaser, and Raba`a. The abiotic environmental effects in the Bardawil Lagoon are general to those generally observed in other areas influenced by organic wastes, namely, changed in the physic-chemical properties of the sediments and low oxygen concentrations in the bottom water due to decomposition of organic materials.
  • Breeding and Larval Rearing of Asian Moon Scallop Amusium pleuronectes in Eastern Samar, Philippines

    Cabacaba, Nonita S.; Boiser, Ed-Marie B.; Badocdoc, Kimberly A.; Campo, Cristan Joy M. (2020)
    Asian moon scallop, Amusium pleuronectes, is among the most common commercially harvested scallop in the Philippines. This study investigated suitable conditioning methods, induced spawning, and documented scallop larval development at the Marine Fisheries Research and Development Center (MFRDC) Guiuan, Eastern Samar. Scallops held in tanks with flow-through water system without substrate yielded high survival rate of 48.06 ± 5.95%. Optimum water temperature was 28-29°C for maintaining scallops. Isochrysis galbana and Chaetoceros calcitrans were suitable microalgal feed for A. pleuronectes consumed at 7,388,888 cells min-1 per scallop. These significant results were applied in maintaining scallops at the hatchery. As a result, scallops with an average 19.8 mm shell length (SL) reached 37.5 mm SL within four months with a survival rate of 96.57 ± 2.04%, average daily growth rate (ADGR) of 0.13 ± 0.04 mm.day-1, and specific growth rate (SGR) of 3.92 ± 1.31%.d-1. Natural spawning was successful under controlled conditions while induced spawning trial through thermal stimulation, food shock, sexual stimulation, and serotonin injection resulted unsuccessful release of sperm and eggs. The estimated number of fertilized eggs per spawning ranged from 0.22-1.4 million. Fertilized eggs appeared spherical and dark in color with 54.2-62.57 µm in diameter. After nine hours, the larvae developed into trochophore stage with 59.08-84.4 µm in length. D-veliger with 120.37-157.07µm shell length developed after 24 hours. Development of the early umbone stage was reached on day 5; and on day 7, the umbo larvae become well-developed with shell length of 135.45-173.36 µm. On day 9, pedi-veligers were observed in the culture. Spat grew 312.41-509.48 µm on day 16 and survived until four months with final shell length of 4-10 mm. For the larval rearing, stocking density of A. pleuronectes larvae observed highest survival rate of 0.04 ± 0.03% at 200 larvae/L, while no larvae survived at 800 larvae/L due to contamination of protozoans in the culture medium.
  • Status of Fisheries in Agusan Marsh: Lapaz and Talacogon, Agusan del Sur, Mindanao

    Baclayo, Joyce M.; Alcantara, Matt T.; Holoyohoy, Laila M.; Alaba, Letecia A (2020)
    In support to policy formulation of fisheries in Agusan Marsh, a stock assessment was conducted for the period of May 2014 to December 2016 using the data collected from Lapaz and Talacogon, Agusan del Sur within the Agusan Marsh. Results showed that Lapaz contributed 54% of the catch over Talacogon. A total of eighteen species, belonging to 13 genera and 11 families with 7 native and 11 introduced species were found in the marsh. Majority of the total catch consisted of Channa striata, Oreochromis niloticus, and Cyprinus carpio (35%, 27%, and 26%, respectively). Osphronemus laticlavius, Glossogobius celebius and Mugil cephalus were listed as seasonal species. An invasive janitor fish (Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus) was observed as by-catch. A strong pattern of high catch rates occurred during the rainy months of January, February, June, and December. Ten types of commonly used fishing gears were found, majority of which include fish pots, set gillnets, electrofishing and set long lines. Multivariate analysis showed similarity in species composition both in Lapaz and Talacogon. Exploitation of dominant species showed unsustainable level for O. niloticus, C. batrachus, C. caprio, andC. gariepinus, mainly due to excessive capture of immaturesized fishes by major fishing gears. The estimated exploitation rate is beyond the optimum level for O. niloticus and C. carpio in both years and followed by C. striata and C. gariepinus in 2016. Only C. bartachus is estimated to be exploited below the optimum level. Generally, the key species in Agusan Marsh are at risk of overfishing, hence, immediate policy measures must be given high attention.
  • Growth, Development, and Survival of Portunus pelagicus Larvae and Juveniles in Different Feed Regimens, Rearing Media, and Stocking Densities

    Cabacaba, Nonita S.; Badocdoc, Kimberly A.; Boiser, Ed-Marie B.; Campo, Cristan Joy M.; Josue, Shaira Lyle A. (2020)
    Various factors in P. pelagicus seed production and grow-out culture were investigated in this study. Experiments were conducted to 1) compare natural and artificial feeds for larval production, 2) evaluate indoor tank and outdoor net cages as rearing media, and 3) assess different stocking densities for grow-out culture. Growth, development, and survival were assessed for the performance of each variable. (I) In larval production, the development of megalopa larvae into crab instar was synchronous in both natural and artificial feed treatments in a 5-day rearing observation. Crab instars began to appear on Day 4 with 27% composition in both feeds. Although survival appeared to be relatively higher in natural feed (43.96 ± 6.04%), this was not significant from survival in artificial feed treatment (33.33 ± 13.34), (t = 0.726, p > 0.05). (II) In Phase I grow-out culture, a two-variable design experiment was conducted to assess growth performance and survival of crab juveniles reared in indoor tanks and outdoor net cages at different stocking densities. Specific growth rate (SGR) differed significantly (t = 2.937, p < 0.05) between indoor tanks (6.39 ± 0.24%.d-1) and outdoor net cages (8.31 ± 1.11%.d-1). However, mean survival rate was better in indoor tanks (20.83 ± 9.24%) than outdoor net cages (8.94 ± 3.58% only), (t = 2.938, p = 0.015). In terms of stocking density, SGR was highest in 75 ind.m-2 (7.87 ± 2.44%.d-1). However, growth performance and survival of juveniles among different stocking densities were not significantly different (p > 0.05). Furthermore, two-factor ANOVA results have shown that growth performance of the juveniles was influenced by both the differences in rearing medium and stocking density, but not in terms of survival (F = 0.120, p = 0.888). (III) In Phase II grow-out culture, juveniles attained highest SGR (3.54 ± 0.56%.d-1) at 5 ind.m-2 stocking density. This was followed by 15 ind.m-2 (3.45 ± 2.39%.d-1) and by 10 ind.m-2 (2.33 ± 0.50%.d-1) (p > 0.05). However, survival rate was highest in 15 ind.m-2 (46.67 ± 0.00%), but the differences among other stocking densities were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Overall, results suggest that artificial feed can be an alternative for Artemia in rearing megalopae to crab instar stage. Stocking density in Phase I and II grow-out culture did not substantially affect growth performance and survival of juvenile P. pelagicus. However, higher stocking density increases incidence of cannibalism among reared crabs.
  • Estimation of Post-Harvest Losses of Fish Transported Using Ice-chilled Carrier Boats from High Seas Pocket 1

    Montojo, Ulysses M.; Delos Santos, Virginia H.; Narida, Camille M.; Febreo, Ivy Y.; Peralta, Deserie M.; Banicod, Riza Jane S.; Sabal, Omar M. (2020)
    Access of Philippine traditional fresh/ice-chilled seining vessels to High Seas Pocket 1 (HSP-1) lessens fishing pressures in the Philippine Exclusive Economic Zone where juvenile oceanic tunas are more likely to be found. However, catch landed by carrier boats from HSP-1 were observed to be of reduced quality, thus eliciting lower market value. The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of icechilled carrier boats by generating data on the magnitude of post-harvest losses incurred in landed catch from HSP-1. Exploratory Fish Loss Assessment Method and Questionnaire Loss Assessment Method were used to estimate quality losses. Landed catch of ice-chilled carrier boats from HSP-1 recorded an estimated loss of 17.25%. Key players incurred an estimated financial loss amounting to PHP 223 million (USD 4.3 million). Low quality catch commonly sold as raw materials for canning, smoking, and fishmeal processing entail cheaper prices, thus regarded as losses. A positive correlation was established between fishing duration and losses. Results indicate that the current preservation technique in carrier boats could induce quality deterioration in fish given the long distances and transit times involved. Thus, the use of carrier boats with freezing system should be allowed in HSP-1 to sufficiently preserve the quality of the catch. This will reduce losses in post-harvest fisheries, thereby increasing the potential income of HSP-1 players.
  • Stock Assessment of Arius maculatus (Thurnberg, 1792) (Ariidae, Siluriformes) in Panguil Bay, Northwestern Mindanao

    Jumawan, Celestina Q.; Metillo, Ephrime B.; Mutia, Maria Theresa M. (2020)
    Arius maculatus, commonly known as spotted catfish and locally known as Tambangongo, has a great potential as an aquaculture species, but there is very limited information known for the stocks in Panguil Bay. This study aimed to assess the wild stocks of A. maculatus, and make an inventory of the fishing boat and gears in two stations in Panguil Bay, namely: Tangub, Misamis Occidental and Baroy, Lanao del Norte. Length frequencies were analyzed to provide estimates of growth, mortality, exploitation ratio, and recruitment pulse of A. maculatus in the bay. A total of 589 boats (324 motorized boats and 265 non-motorized boats) were recorded from the sites. There were 473 units of 15 types of fishing gear used in the sites and 6 types of these were only used in catching A. maculatus. A total of 3,259 specimens were collected for 12 months from the sites. The aquatic habitat of A. maculatus from the two sites was characterized by a pH range of 7.9-8.1, temperature of 28.5-29.1°C, salinity of 13.31-15.9 ppt, dissolved oxygen levels of 4.0-5.41 ppm, and total suspended solid values of 0.1-0.6 g/L. Reproductive biology analysis indicates that eggs start to mature from October to December, then spawning starts from January to March, and the fish fry recruitment starts in April and May. A. maculatus can grow up to 98.95 cm with an asymptotic length of 98.86 cm (K value = 0.35) equivalent to asymptotic weigth of 8,750 g. Mortality Z = 0.99, with natural mortality M = 0.67 and fishing mortality F = 0.33. This study revealed that A. maculatus in Panguil Bay is not over-exploited since the exploitation rate (E = 0.33) is minimal and large individuals can still be collected from the field.
  • Searching the Virtually Extinct Tridacna gigas (Linnaeus, 1758) in the Reefs of Palawan, Philippines

    Mecha, Niño Jess Mar F.; Dolorosa, Roger G. (2020)
    Tridacna gigas (Cardiidae: Tridacninae) is the largest extant reef-associated bivalves that occur abundantly in the Indo-West Pacific Region. However, unregulated exploitation had caused localized extinction in many parts of its distribution range. In Palawan, the species was considered virtually extinct in the 1980s, and since then, no study has been done to monitor their status in the wild. In the absence of updated studies about T. gigas, we gathered information through field reports, key informants, and field visits. Within five months of data gathering, we recorded 97 empty shells (14 in pairs and 83 single shells) with 65.86 cm (range: 42-112 cm) average shell length, which were estimated to be from 5 to >76 years old. Most (78.36%) of the empty shells were used for decoration and landscaping. On the other hand, 29 live individuals with 73.69 cm (range: 42-109 cm) average shell length were estimated to be 5 to >76 years old. Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park and some island resorts harbored the highest number of live T. gigas. The presence of live T. gigas in these areas reflects years of effective management and the resorts’ essential contribution to resource conservation. These remaining live individuals could be used in breeding and restocking programs to restore their lost populations.
  • Ciguatera in the Philippines: Examining Reef Fish Vectors and Its Causative Benthic Dinoflagellates in Visayan and Sibuyan Seas

    Montojo, Ulysses M.; Tanyag, Bryan E.; Perelonia, Karl Bryan S.; Cambia, Flordeliza D.; Oshiro, Naomasa (2020)
    Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is primarily caused by ingesting reef fishes contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTX) produced by the Gambierdiscus species. The unpredictability of this type of food poisoning poses risks to public health and adversely affecting the fish trade industry. This study aimed to provide useful information on ciguatera in the Philippines. Different reef fish species and host-macroalgae for benthic dinoflagellates were collected in Visayan and Sibuyan Seas. Ciguatoxins were extracted from reef fish samples, and toxicity was determined qualitatively using mouse bioassay. Meanwhile, cell density estimation of toxic benthic dinoflagellates isolated from the host-macroalgae was done through microscopy. It was observed that 4.46% of the total reef fish samples were positive with ciguatoxins. Spatially, Carles, Iloilo in Visayan sea had the highest number of toxic specimens belonging to Epinephelus merra, Lethrinus lentjan, Lutjanus campechanus, Scarus quoyi, Siganus guttatus, and Sphyraena barracuda. Based on data gathered from three sampling sites, fish toxin occurrence is observed to be site-specific. Geographical conditions affect the frequency of toxic samples. Moreover, fish weight is not a good predictor of fish toxicity. For toxic benthic dinoflagellates, Gambierdiscus spp. were observed to have the lowest cell density count among other dinoflagellates averaging 7-115 cells per 100 g macroalgae. On the other hand, Ostreopsis spp. had the highest average cell density of 118-1,455 cells per 100 g macroalgae, followed by Prorocentrum spp. (207-594 cells per 100 g macroalgae). Fish toxicity is directly proportional to the occurrence of benthic dinoflagellates in areas as seen during dry season. Monitoring and management of CFP on identified reef fish vectors and its causative benthic dinoflagellates in the area are necessary to promote food safety and fair trade practice.
  • Estimation of Nutrient Load from Aquaculture Farms in Manila Bay, Philippines

    Montojo, Ulysses M.; Baldoza, Bernajocele Jalyn S.; Perelonia, Karl Bryan S.; Cambia, Flordeliza D.; Garcia, Lilian C. (2020)
    Waste from aquaculture is considered as one of the possible causes of water quality deterioration in Manila Bay. Aquaculture in the area accounts for almost 30% of the total production in the Philippines. This high production entails intensified application of inputs that could possibly contribute to the nutrient (nitrogen, N and phosphorus, P) load in the bay. Thus, estimation of the N, P and SO4 loaded from aquaculture farms is necessary to develop more responsive intervention to reduce nutrient load in Manila Bay. Water samples were collected throughout the rearing period from different aquaculture systems in Cavite, Bulacan, Pampanga, and Bataan. The annual estimated N and P loaded from aquaculture farms were 12, 696.66 MT and 2, 363.01 MT, respectively. Fish pens/cages recorded the highest contribution accounting for 88% N and 86% P of the total load. It can be attributed to the direct release of uneaten feeds into the bodies of water. Roughly, 12% N and 14% P were obtained from the fishponds. Furthermore, the annual SO4 loaded from fishponds was estimated at 36,917.54 MT. Results of the study suggested that there should be an extensive monitoring of the environmental impacts and annual load of aquaculture farms for the sustainable regulations and management of aquaculture activities to reduce nutrient load and improve the aquaculture production as well. Finally, strict compliance to the regulatory guidelines and ordinances must be imposed to achieve the effluent quality standards.
  • Pawikan on FB: Facebook as a Source of Information on the Current State of Sea Turtles in the Philippines with an Emphasis on Mortality

    Superio, Daryl L.; Luceño, Myrna T.; Bendalian, Maria Venessa T.; Yap-Zerudo, Anna May A.; Ciriaco, Joel A.; Estante-Superio, Erish G. (2020)
    Five of the seven species of pawikan (sea turtles) are found in the Philippine seas. These are Olive ridley turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea), Hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata), Green sea (Chelonia mydas), Loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta), and Leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea). All of these are threatened species due to predation (animals and humans), climate change, harvesting of eggs, juveniles and adults, bycatch, and habitat degradation. Thus, to protect the species, several laws, policies, and programs have been passed and implemented by the Philippines government since 1979 (Marine Wild Fauna Watch of the Philippines (MWFWP), 2014). However, despite the efforts to protect the pawikan, reports about dead sea turtles due to various causes are becoming frequent than ever. Furthermore, public posts on Facebook about dead pawikan by private individuals are increasing. On the other hand, data on the mortality causes of sea turtles remain scarce as of the moment. Hence, to provide additional data, this study was conducted.
  • Biometric properties of euryhaline fish the sand smelt Atherina boyeri Risso, 1810

    Semra, Benzer (2019)
    In this study the presence of sand smelt Atherina boyeri Risso, 1810, an invasive and translocated species has been reported in the Hirfanlı Dam Lake, Turkey. The fish samples were collected from the fishermen operating in the area in April 2016. Twenty-three morphometric characteristics of A. boyeri, were taken, including standard length (SL), fork length (FL), total length (TL), preorbital distance, eye diameter, interorbital distance, head length, head width, dorsal fin I nose point distance, dorsal fin II nose point distance, preanal distance, prepectoral distance, preventral distance, dorsal fin I base length, dorsal fin II base length, anal fin base length, pectoral fin base length, ventral fin base length, maximum body height, caudal peduncle height, body width, caudal peduncle width, body weight (W). The SL varied between 62 to 75 mm and weight 2.324 to 4.133 g in females. Whereas in males the SL varied between 56 to78 mm and weight 1.533 to 4.011 g. The sex ratio was slightly in favour of females being 54.4%.

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