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  • The first finding of the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (De Haan, 1849) in the Lower Don River (Azov Sea Basin)

    Zhivoglyadova, L.A.; Vekhov, D.A.; Spiridonov, V.A.; Guskova, O.S.; Afanasyev, D.F. (2021)
    In September 2019, in the lower reaches of the Don River, two specimens of a shrimp previously unknown for this river basin were recorded. The finding was made downstream of khutor Arpachin. The coordinates of the first finding location are as follows: N 47.258610°, E 40.166330°. The shape and armature of the rostrum, the proportions of the second pereopods, and a number of other morphological characteristics allowed the species to be identified as Macrobrachium nipponense (De Haan, 1849) (Decapoda, Crustacea, Palaemonidae). M. nipponense (De Haan, 1849), or oriental river prawn, is a subtropical shrimp, originated and widely distributed in Southeast Asia, including Japan, China, Republic of Korea, Vietnam, Myanmar and Taiwan. It is known that in the 1980–1990s in the temperate zones, this species was introduced into the cooling ponds of thermal power stations as a target of warm-water aquaculture. Several decades later, M. nipponense began to be observed outside the primary recipient reservoirs. The first findings of this genus were considered to be associated with long-distance migrations of this prawn. However, more recent data have shown that, at least in the south of the temperate zone, the prawns have formed stable populations outside warm water refugia. Finding of the oriental prawn in the Don River not only expands the known range of the species but also gives evidence for the continuation of the process of active expansion of M. nipponense through Eurasian water bodies.
  • Characterization of oil pollution of the Azov Sea in 2016–2020

    Korablina, I.V.; Pavlenko, L.F.; Klimenko, T.L.; Anokhina, N.S.; Ekilik, V.S.; Savchuk, I.A.; Ryzhkova, V.V. (2021)
    This article presents the results of oil pollution monitoring of water and bottom sediments of the Azov Sea in the summer and autumn seasons of 2016–2020. The detected concentrations of petroleum products are given in terms of the total content of the main petroleum components: hydrocarbons, resins, and asphaltenes. In some water samples, the concentrations of petroleum products varied from <0.02 to 2.0 mg/dm3 in summer, and from <0.02 to 0.20 mg/dm3 in autumn. In various years, the weighted average concentrations of petroleum products in water exceeded the maximum permissible level (0.05 mg/dm3) by 0.08–2.6 times in summer, and by 0.08–1.2 times in autumn. In sediments, the concentrations of petroleum products were in the range of <0.02–1.01 g/kg in summer, and 0.02–0.85 g/kg dry weight in autumn; the weighted average concentrations varied from 0.19 to 0.55 mg/dm3 and from 0.25 to 0.34 mg/dm3 during the summer and autumn seasons, respectively. More than a half of the investigated sea bottom sediments belong to the category of pollution indicated by a decrease in species diversity and the replacement of dominant forms. According to the data averaged over the period under study, higher pollution of water and bottom sediments is observed in the central regions of the Taganrog Bay and the sea. The most significant inflow of petroleum products occurs in the eastern regions of the Taganrog Bay and the sea in autumn, and in the southern region of the sea in summer.
  • Hydrochemical and hydrobiological characteristics of the lakes of the Shchuchinskо-Borovsk resort zone (Northern Kazakhstan) and the main methodological approaches to assessing the ecological state of small water bodies

    The book is a result of an international project on cooperation between Kazakhstan and Israel. The monograph includes data on hydrochemistry and hydrobiology of six lakes in the Shchuchinsko- Borovsk resort zone (Northern Kazakhstan). It provides information on the current state, interannual changes and the spatial distribution of chemical parameters and the structure of phytoplankton and zooplankton communities. A comprehensive assessment of the ecological state of lakes is given on the basis of chemical and biological indicators. Methods and problems associated with assessing the health of aquatic ecosystems are discussed. It also provides the systematic understanding of the diversity of planktonic algae and invertebrates.
  • On the joint influence of body size and water temperature on the growth rate of the Pacific oyster (Сrassostrea gigas, Thunberg) in the Donuzlav Liman (Black Sea)

    Zolotnitskiy, A.P.; Orlenko, A.N. (2021)
    The Pacific oyster (Сrassostrea gigas, Thunberg) is a cultivated species of a world-wide importance, which results in the relevance of the investigation of its growth rates in various areas of the World Ocean. This parameter defines the time needed for an individual to reach its commercial size and characterizes cost-effectiveness of cultivation of different species of hydrobionts. Within this context, it is essential to investigate not only the general regularities and patterns of the Pacific oyster’s growth, but also how it is influenced by other environmental factors. In this work, the joint influence of body size and water temperature on the linear growth of diploid individuals of the Pacific oyster in the Donuzlav Liman (Black Sea) is investigated. Quantitative characterization of the relationship between shell height (H, mm) and the age of a mollusc (t), which is similarly well described by the von Bertalanffy equation and power function, is presented. Analysis of the changes in absolute growth rate (Ph, mm/day) in dependence to body height (H, mm) and water temperature (T, °С) has been conducted. It is shown that the growth rate of oysters was steadily decreasing with their height gain, all the while seasonal changes in water temperature (T, °С) closely correlated with the absolute growth rate of a shell and were characterized by a positive relation. Following the available data, a mathematical model, where Ph can be presented as a function of two variables, water temperature and body size, is proposed; it is expressed by the equation. The presented model of multiple regression has adequately described the dynamics of Ph (coefficient of determination 0.71) in the course of 3-year rearing of the Pacific oyster. Observed deviations (0.29) have been associated with the early stages of ontogenesis and with reproduction processes of this species.
  • Characterization of the zooplankton community in the cooling pond of the Rostov Nuclear Power Plant

    Shlyakhova, N.A. (2021)
    This research was aimed at the investigation of the impact exerted by the waters, heated after passing through the Rostov NPP power units, on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the zooplankton both in spatial and temporal terms and on its distribution over the water body area in relation to the degree of artificial heating. The data were collected in the spring, summer and autumn seasons of 2019 in the areas of high and medium heating, as well as the ones influenced by the Tsimlyansk Reservoir waters, and in the head and tail races. The planktonic fauna was represented by 30 species. The main components of the zooplankton community were the members of the Brachionus (Pallas, 1766) and Keratella Bory de St. Vincent, 1822 genera for rotifers, Diaphanosoma brachyurum (Liévin, 1848) for cladocerans, brackishwater Eurytemora affinis (Poppe, 1880) and small thermophilic species of Mesocyclops Sars, 1863 and Microcyclops Claus, 1893 genera for copepods. The area influenced by Tsimlyansk Reservoir waters was characterized by the highest values of quantitative parameters of zooplankters; their abundance and biomass were 53,493 ind./m3 and 287.9 mg/m3, respectively. The lowest values of quantitative parameters have been registered in the tail race of the RoNPP; the abundance equaled 1,826 ind./m3, and the biomass was 13.6 mg/m3. On average, during the growing season, the zooplankton abundance in the cooling pond in general was 27,853 ind./m3, with its biomass being 97.7 mg/m3, while in the tail race those values amounted to 5,267 ind./m3 and 25.0 mg/m3, respectively. Despite an increased background temperature and a significant decrease in the quantitative parameters in the tail race, the zooplankton community of the cooling pond was characterized by rich species composition and regular seasonal dynamics of quantitative parameters, which is typical for the water bodies in Southern Russia. The results of this investigation indicate a slight impact of the heated waters on the zooplankton community in the cooling pond of the RoNPP.
  • The influence of abiotic and anthropogenic factors on the formation of the present composition of the ichthyofauna in the Chogray Reservoir

    Karnaukhov, G.I.; Kashirin, A.V.; Gitalov, E.I.; Sirota, Yu.V. (2021)
    Following the results of long-term investigation of the Chogray Reservoir, carried out in the period from 2010 to 2020, the data on its hydrological and hydrochemical regime and the current composition of its ichthyofauna are presented. The ichthyological material has been collected and processed according to generally accepted methods. The stocks and abundance have been calculated using the method of direct counting per area unit. The results of this investigation indicated that the formation of the species composition of fish in the reservoir was influenced by biotic and abiotic factors and passed several stages. At the first stages of the formation of the ichthyofauna of the Chogray Reservoir, common carp, Prussian carp and zander prevailed in its species composition. The basis of the ichthyocenosis of the Chogray Reservoir was and proceeds to be composed of demersal species. In 1972, the acclimatization of common bream was carried out. In the first years of commercial exploitation of the reservoir, the main fishing target was carp, which by the early 1980s began to be replaced by common bream. The main commercial fish species in the Chogray Reservoir are the following, in order of their abundance: common bream, European perch, Prussian carp, common roach, common carp, and white bream. It is established that in the last years of operation of the reservoir, the fish community has undergone certain changes that are associated with hydrological and hydrochemical fluctuations. Currently, the biodiversity of the ichthyofauna is represented by 22 species and subspecies of fish. The percentage for species distribution of commercial fish species in the ichthyofauna of the Chogray Reservoir is presented (in 2020, the share of common bream was 56 %, and Prussian carp and European perch accounted for 14 % each). The reduction in the exploitable volume of water in the reservoir led to an increase in the area of shallow waters, their overgrowth, a reduction in the stocks of the main commercial fish species and an increase in the population of tench. The average water salinity increased from 1.9 to 2.7 g/L. During the commercial exploitation of the reservoir, significant fluctuations in catches were recorded.
  • Dynamics of mussel and mytilaster settlements on the hydraulic structures of recreational waters

    Solovieva, O.V. (2021)
    In the coastal waters, hydraulic structures form additional areas for the development of the fouling community. In recent years, Mytilidae fouling of the solid substrates in the Crimean coastal waters undergoes a transformation. These phenomena cause a change in the natural biofilters aggregated on the surface of hydraulic structures and, as a result, a change in the self-cleaning capacity of the water areas. This work is aimed at the assessment of the inter-annual dynamics of the settlements of Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam. and Mytilaster lineatus Gmel. and the assessment of the capacity of the biofilter formed by Mytilidae molluscs on hydraulic structures in recreational waters during the beach season. On average, for the period from 2015 to 2018, the mussel abundance at the investigated structures decreased from 1,125±523 to 462±221 ind./m2. The biomass of this species decreased from 893±397 to 462± 221 g/m2. The length frequency in the mussel settlements has not changed. For certain areas, the characteristics of the length composition identified earlier have been preserved. A significant decrease in the abundance and biomass of mytilasters was recorded for 2015–2018. The abundance of these molluscs decreased from 33,443±11,084 to 1,094±228 ind./m2. The biomass of the investigated species decreased from 2,492±1,165 to 1,099±332 g/m2. The length composition of the mytilaster for the period of this investigation remained relatively unchanged. As a result of the decline in the settlement density and biomass of Mytilidae molluscs, the volumes of the water filtered by the molluscs were significantly lower in 2018 than in 2015. For mussels, the average value was 4,640±4,123 L/day·m2 in 2018, which is almost 4 times lower than the said value in 2015. In 2018, this value for mytilaters was, on average, 10,256±3,875 L/day·m2. Thus, the decrease in the total performance of the natural biofilter on the hydraulic structures in the recreational waters of Sevastopol and, as a result, the reduction in the self-cleaning capacity of these waters have been recorded.
  • Designing of specialized fish food products with a reduced content of nitrogen extractives

    Alekseev, G. V.; Eliseeva, S. A.; Smolentseva, A. A. (2021)
    The authors consider the possibility of using low-value pelagic fish species in the diet of people with restrictions on the consumption of nitrogenous extractive substances including nucleic acids which are sources of purine base metabolism. The objects of the study were chopped mackerel fillets from boiled fish and chopped boiled fillets from raw fish, quick-frozen minced horse mackerel of industrial processing in a boiled form. The studies were carried out in accordance with the experimental plan in which the duration of the heat treatment and the temperature of the cooking medium were the variable factors. The technology of combined fish masses with the addition of functional plant components has been proposed. It has been established that the dynamics of dry matter losses and heat losses of fish fillets is determined by the duration of cooking. In terms of organoleptic characteristics boiled minced meat from raw mackerel fillets is significantly inferior to the organoleptic characteristics of minced meat from pre-boiled fillets. When comparing the data for frozen and freshly prepared mince from horse mackerel, it has been found that the loss of nucleic acids in industrially prepared minced meat is 4.6–13.1 % higher (T = 82 ± 2 and 98 ± 2 °C), the loss of nucleic acids by absolutely dry matter is higher by 11.3–5.8 %, mass – by 8.4–14.6 %. The content of the total amount of nucleic acids in industrial minced meat is 11.1 % lower than in freshly prepared minced meat. Obviously, in the process of preparing products for specialized purposes, including for preventive nutrition, it is preferable to use minced meat from boiled fish fillets.
  • Chemical composition of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) berry grown in the Chelyabinsk region

    Naumova, N. L. (2021)
    The most important phytonutrients of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) berry are carotenoids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, sugars, organic and amino acids, water and fat-soluble vitamins, tannins and pectin substances, phospholipids, macro- and microelements. In the Chelyabinsk region it is almost impossible to find well-groomed industrial plantings of sea buckthorn, since its main areas (600 hectares) are concentrated in amateur and home gardens. To form a healthy diet, it is important not only to ensure the safety of horticultural products, but also to raise the priority of signs that determine consumer demand, namely the quality and chemical composition of fruits, their saturation with the necessary micronutrients. While studying food and biologically active substances of sea buckthorn berries of the "Velikan" variety growing in different garden agrocenoses of the Chelyabinsk region it has been determined that sea buckthorn berries cultivated in the garden "Lokomotiv-1" (Chelyabinsk) contain more flavonoids (by 21.4 %), proteins (by 17.4 %), mineral elements – Al (in 5.3 times), V (3.4 times), Cu (3 times), Ti (2.4 times), Ca and Fe (1.9 times), Mn (1.5 times), in berries obtained in the garden "Dizelist-1" (Chelyabinsk region, Troitsk) contains more sugars (by 15.1 %), as well as Mo and Sr (2–2.3 times), Se (1.4 times), Cr (by 76.2 %), etc. In terms of Se content, the studied fruits exceed the clarke values by 4–6 times; in terms of Pb content, they turned out to be as close as possible to the upper limit of MPC according to the requirements of the Technical Regulations of the Customs Union. The study of the mineral composition of sea buckthorn is especially important in the context of the ecological disadvantage of the Chelyabinsk region due to the pollution of the environment with heavy metals.
  • New varieties of wheat, triticale and spelt grains: Comparative characteristics of milling properties

    Kandrokov, R. H.; Begeulov, M. S.; Tkach, A. N.; Igonin, V. N.; Porechnaya, E. S. (2021)
    Triticale and spelt grains are non-traditional types of plant raw materials that are promising for expanding the range of everyday products, healthy foods, as well as for the manufacture of food additives. A promising and relevant direction of scientific and practical research is the use of methods of biomechanical impact on the products of processing grain triticale and spelt grain in the form of flour, crumbs and bran to obtain food for general, functional and therapeutic purposes. The aim of the research is a comparative characteristic of the milling properties of new varieties of grain of wheat, triticale and spelt and the possibility of theit using for grinding into flour at existing grain processing enterprises. A comparative characteristic of the cereal-forming ability of new varieties of wheat, triticale and spelt has been carried out and it is revealed that the best cereal-forming ability belongs to the spelt grain of the "Gremme 2 U" variety, equal to 79.8 %, which is 4 % more than that of the wheat grain of the "Timiryazevskaya Jubilee" and 4.8 % of triticale grain of the "Timiryazevskaya 155" variety. It has been found that the highest flour yield under the same grinding regimes is obtained when grinding the grain of a new type of spelt "Gremme 2 U" amounted to 79.3 %. The largest amount of triticale flour of the highest grade T-60 is obtained from triticale grain of the "Timiryazevskaya 155" variety. The grain of wheat "Timiryazevskaya Jubilee" occupies an intermediate position both in terms of the total yield of flour and its quality compared to spelt and triticale. All three given new varieties of various crops have good flour-grinding properties and can be recommended for processing into high-quality bakery flour at flour mills when making grinding mixtures.
  • Substantiation of a rational method for drying granules in a fluidized bed and the hydrodynamic regime of their interaction with a fluidizing agent

    Nugmanova, A. A.; Aleksanyan, I. Yu.; Nugmanov, A. H.-H.; Maksimenko, Yu. A.; Khaybulov, R. A. (2021)
    Gluten is produced from wheat grains and is used in the food industry as an improver in flour baking properties. On the basis of a comparative analysis of the methods of dehydration of frozen granules of wheat gluten with a surface dry crust, a rational method of drying them in a fluidized bed has been selected. In the process of calculating units with a fluidized bed, its hydrodynamic parameters have been determined: loss of the pressure of the fluidizing agent; the speed at the transition of the bed from the state of rest to the pseudo-boiling mode; layer porosity; the rate of entrainment of particles in unrestricted conditions roughly corresponding to the rate of soaring, at which a single particle is in equilibrium in the gas flow. During the dewatering operation, the rate of entrainment of the granules varies; therefore, it is advisable to use the passing fluidization mode depending on the decrease in their moisture content. In the variant of the active hydrodynamic regime in the drying unit, the dehydration procedure is intensified without a noticeable decrease in the economic efficiency of its functioning and high quality indicators of the finished product with the given final moisture are provided, which is due to the specific conditions of contact of the granules with the coolant. For granules with a moisture content of 0.19 kg/kg, the values of hydrodynamic characteristics have been determined: the area of critical pseudo-boiling rates is 4.1–5.5 m/s; the carryover rate of the fines is 12.5–14.5 m/s. As a result of the study, the choice has been substantiated in favor of drying the studied granules in a fluidized bed due to the prevalence of its advantages over the dehydration of the object in drum dryers.
  • The study of biotechnological potential of Lactobacillus sakei LSK-103

    Nikiforova, A. P.; Khamagaeva, I. S. (2021)
    Lactic acid bacteria play an important role in the production of food. Bacterial cultures widely used in the food industry often have a set of characteristics that ensure the stability of the production. The biotechnological properties of Lactobacillus sakei LSK-103 have been studied in the present work. Lactobacillus sakei LSK-103 has shown high biochemical activity on MRS medium. It has been found that after 16 h of cultivation at the end of the exponential growth phase, the number of viable bacterial cells reaches 109 CFU/cm3. The study of the effect of different concentrations of sodium chloride on biomass accumulation has shown that Lactobacillus sakei LSK-103 is highly resistant to salt. Increase in NaCl concentration from 2 to 10 % leads to decrease in cell survival from 96.8 to 91.2 %, and in number of bacteria to 108 CFU/cm3. Morphological studies indicate that an increase in the concentration of sodium chloride in the medium is accompanied by cell cohesion, the formation of cell conglomerates. Cohesion intensifies intercellular contacts and increases the resistance of Lactobacillus sakei LSK-103 to osmotic stress. The high survival rate of Lactobacillus sakei LSK-103 has been shown in the presence of bile, phenol (0.4 %), high (pH 8.3) and low (pH 3.5) values of active acidity of the medium indicating its probiotic properties. The results of research have shown that the Lactobacillus sakei LSK-103 has high biotechnological potential and can be used as part of bacterial preparations for the production of fermented fish products.
  • Chemical and enzymatic destruction of chondroitin sulfate from Arctic skate

    Kuchina, Yu. A.; Konovalova, I. N.; Novikov, V. Yu.; Dolgopyatova, N. V.; Kuznetsov, V. Ya. (2021)
    Due to its biocompatibility with human and animal tissues, low toxicity, and biodegradability, chondroitin sulfate (CS) is of great interest for medicine. Since CS is used as a pharmaceutical preparation, its molecular weight and solubility determine the possibilities of its use. This work presents the results of studying the chemical and enzymatic destruction of CS macromolecules and its effect on the molecular weight, solubility and crystallinity degree of the polysaccharide. CS was obtained from the cartilaginous tissue of the Arctic skate (Amblyraja hyperborea). At the stage of cartilage tissue fermentolysis, the enzymes pancreatin, hepatopancreatin and protosubtil were used. The obtained CS samples were identified by IR spectroscopy. Enzymatic destruction of glycosidic bonds in cholesterol macromolecules was carried out with a 1 % solution of the enzyme hepatopancreatin, chemical destruction with hydrogen peroxide and hydrochloric acid. The CS content in the samples was determined by the Dische method. The chemical composition of CS samples was evaluated by standard methods. The average molecular weight (MW) was determined using high performance liquid chromatography and the nephelometric method. The crystallinity degree (CD) was determined by graphical processing of diffraction patterns obtained by X-ray phase analysis of CS samples. It was found that under the action of hepatopancreatin and hydrogen peroxide, deep destruction of chondroitin sulfate occurs, to the formation of low molecular weight and oligomeric fragments. Under conditions of acid destruction in 0.5 N HCl for 20 min the MW of chondroitin sulfate is reduced by 10 % compared to the initial one. Acid destruction causes a significant decrease in the CD of the CS samples. For CS samples not degraded in acid, the solubility in distilled water increases with decreasing MW and CD. The solubility of CS after acid destruction in the range of pH = 5–9 units is 99.0 ± 0.5 %. This high solubility is most likely explained by the significant content of the amorphous phase in the samples.
  • Evaluation of the effect of enzymatic hydrolyzate of the bursa of broiler chickens on cytotoxic activity and nonspecific immunity

    Kolberg, N. A; Leontieva, S. A.; Tikhonov, S. L.; Tikhonova, N. V.; Shikhalev, S. V.; Kirpikova, K. E. (2021)
    The use of biologically active substances of tissue origin for the creation of biologically active additives and immunomodulatory drugs is an important area of scientific research in the field of nutrition and pharmacology. The aim of the work is to evaluate the effect of enzymatic hydrolysate from the fabricium bag of broiler chickens on the cytotoxicity and nonspecific immunity of mice against the background of experimental salmonella infection using biotechnological methods. For the experiment, three equal experimental groups of white mongrel mice were formed. All laboratory animals were fed daily for seven days with enzymatic hydrolysate at a dose of 750 mg/kg (therapeutic dose), 150 mg/kg (0.2 therapeutic dose) and 3,750 mg/kg (five therapeutic doses). At the same time, the control group of animals received intragastric water in the same volume. 24 hours after the last intake of the enzymatic hydrolysate, the animals were intraperitoneally infected with a culture of Salmonella enteritidis 92. The study reveals the absence of cytotoxic properties and impaired cell viability in cultures L929, J774.1A, HeLa S3, K562, and HST116 against the background of exposure to various concentrations of enzymatic hydrolysate from 0.02 to 10 mg/ml. It should be noted that there is a pronounced cytotoxic effect on MCF-7 tumor cells of the concentration of enzymatic hydrolysate in culture of 5 and 10 mg/ml, which suggests the possibility of using enzymatic hydrolysate for the prevention of tumor diseases. As a result of the experiment, it has been proved that the administration of enzymatic hydrolysate to mice increased the LD50 index and the survival rate of mice infected with the culture of the causative agent of salmonellosis by 1.5 times. Based on the conducted studies, it has been shown that the enzymatic hydrolysate of the lymphoid tissue of broiler chickens does not violate the viability of mammalian cells and does not exhibit cytotoxic properties on the metabolism of healthy mammalian cells, which indicates its safety. In an experiment on mice, the effect of enzymatic hydrolysate of the fabricium bag of broiler chickens on the activation of nonspecific immunity against salmonella infection has been revealed.
  • Development of a functional bread technology based on a grain baking mixture

    Alekhina, N. N. (2021)
    One of the priority areas for developing the food industry is to increase the production of functional food products. When developing the latter, fruit and berry processing products, grain baking mixes are used. At the same time, there are no baking mixes with the use of bioactivated wheat, characterized by an increased content of macro- and micronutrients, antioxidants, and a reduced amount of phytin. However, the preparation of grain bread based on a baking mixture of bioactivated wheat crushed by the disintegration wave method with a moisture content of 10.0 ± 0.5 % led to the production of products with a sticky, strongly jamming crumb. The aim of the research was to develop a baking mixture of bioactivated wheat and functional grain bread of improved quality based on it. At the first stage of the research, the composition of the baking mixture based on bioactivated wheat grain was selected to obtain the best quality product, at the second stage, the chemical composition of bread was evaluated based on the developed baking mixture. The change in the properties of the dough during fermentation, the quality indicators of bread after 20 hours of storage and its chemical composition were evaluated in accordance with the methods specified in the current standards. The best properties of the dough and the quality of the bread have been observed in a sample obtained on the basis of a baking mixture, in 100 g of which 75 % of the grain products are dry bioactivated wheat crushed by the disintergation-wave method, and 25 % – baking wheat flour of the first grade. As a result of the assessment of the chemical composition of the developed product, it has been found that it belongs to functional food products. The preparation of grain bread using this technology will also allow us to solve one of the tasks of the state policy in the field of healthy nutrition aimed at increasing the production of functional products.
  • Numerical simulation of the thermal regime of an underground spent fuel storage facility (built-in structure variant)

    Amosov, P. V. (2021)
    The results of a numerical simulation of the thermal regime of an underground facility for long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel in a built-in reinforced concrete structure are presented. Two computer models were constructed in a three-dimensional formulation in the COMSOL programme. The first model is based on the incompressible fluid approximation, while the second model is based on the "incompressible ideal gas" approximation. The mathematical basis of models: the continuity equation, Navier – Stokes equations averaged by Reynolds, the standard (k – ?) turbulence model, and the general heat transfer equation. Consideration of mixed convection conditions is implemented in the "incompressible ideal gas" approximation, where the air density is a function of temperature only. The most thermally stressful arrangement of spent fuel placement is investigated: U-Zr – defective – U-Be. The air rate is varied in the range from 21 to 0.656 m3/s. Numerical experiments were performed for up to 5 years of fuel storage. The principal difference between the non-stationary structure of the velocity fields predicted in the "incompressible ideal gas" model and the "frozen" picture of the aerodynamic parameters in the incompressible fluid model is emphasized. It is shown that the requirements for exceeding the temperature limit values are met when the object operates under conservative ventilation conditions (rate 0.656 m3/s) with a minimum of costs for organizing ventilation. The dynamics of heat flows directed into the rock mass through the base and from the surface of the built-in structure of the U-Zr fuel compartment to the air environment are analyzed. The predominance of the heat flow from the surface of the structure and the different times when the curves of the heat flow dynamics reach their maximum values are noted. The heat flow to the array reaches its maximum significantly faster than to the air.
  • Natural risks and monitoring systems: Case study of the mining-industrial heritage objects of Karelia (Ruskeala Mining Park), Russia

    Shekov, V. A. (2021)
    Mine workings (open and underground) abandoned during the production process become part of the environment. These objects begin to degrade in accordance with ordinary processes occurring in nature. However, such developments are often of historical value and therefore become tourist sites. They pose a serious threat to the health and life of people visiting these tourist sites, if such workings were not initially processed to safe conditions. The paper considers an example of such an object – a marble quarry with elements of underground caves – the Ruskeala marble deposit, located in Karelia. In the middle of the XX century, it was abandoned, today the "Main" quarry is a monument of the historical and cultural (mining-industrial) heritage of the Republic of Karelia. Ruskeala Mining Park has collected all the risks of degradation inherent in such a natural site. The paper has proposed solutions for monitoring the sustainability of underground objects used as museum exhibits to ensure the safety of tourists visiting them.
  • Seasonal variability of sulfate ions in the Volga River water

    Seleznev, V. A. (2021)
    In the Volga River water, sulfate ions rank second among the main anions in terms of their contribution to water mineralization. To study the seasonal variability of sulfate concentration, an analysis of long-term data of hydrological and hydrochemical observations obtained on the River Volga (in the outlet section of the Kuibyshev reservoir) has been carried out. For the period of 2001–2018 the average annual water consumption in the dam section varied in the range of 6.2–9.0 thousand m3/s, the average annual concentration of sulfates was 55 mg/dm3, the highest – 64 mg/dm3, and the lowest – 45 mg/dm3. The content of sulfates in the reservoir is formed mainly under the influence of the Volga River water coming from the Cheboksary reservoir and the Kama River water coming from the Nizhnekamsk reservoir. The sulfate content is characterized by significant seasonal variability. During the winter low-water period, the highest concentrations of sulfates were observed with a maximum in April, before the beginning of the spring flood (67 mg/dm3). During the flood, the content of sulfates decreased, reaching the lowest values during the summer low-water period in August (44 mg/dm3), and then, from September, the concentration of sulfates gradually increased, reaching 57 mg/dm3 at the beginning of the winter low-water period. Over a long-term observation period, the amplitude of sulfate fluctuations was 34–87 mg/dm3, and its value depended on the water content of a particular year. In dry years, the concentration of sulfates in the water increased, and in dry years, it decreased. In the seasonal context, the main differences in sulfate concentrations in dry and high-water years occurred during the spring flood and winter low-water period, and during the summer – autumn low-water period, the differences became minimal.
  • Analysis of atmospheric emissions in Murmansk and their relationship with pollution of urban lakes

    Postevaya, M. A.; Slukovskii, Z. I. (2021)
    The main sources of anthropogenic emissions into the atmosphere of Murmansk are emissions from thermal power plants and boiler houses operating on fuel oil. As a result of the analysis of the dynamics of pollutant emissions from stationary anthropogenic sources for the period 1997–2019 it has been established that the level of air pollution is assessed as low; there is a tendency towards a decrease in gross emissions from stationary sources. The main pollutants from thermal power plants are sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, and benzo(a)pyrene. Together with gaseous and liquid substances, fuel oil ash and products of incomplete underburning of fuel, which include heavy metals V, Ni, Cr, Pb, Fe, Sn, enter the atmospheric air. Technogenic compounds of heavy metals and other pollutants from the enterprises of the power unit, falling out with dust or precipitation on the surface and catchment areas of lakes, affect the formation of the chemical composition of surface soils, waters and bottom sediments of water bodies. This is reflected in an increase in the concentration of heavy metals (in particular, V and Ni) in the water and bottom sediments of the lakes of Murmansk in comparison with the background values.
  • Destructive activity of hydrocarbon-oxidizing micromycetes extracted from the substrates of the coastal areas, the Barents and White Seas

    Isakova, E. A.; Korneykova, M. V. (2021)
    We analyzed the hydrocarbon-oxidizing activity of 33 micromycetes strains isolated from water and soils of the White Sea and Barents Sea coastal territories. The microscopic fungi studied were represented by the following genera: Acremonium, Aspergillus, Meyerozyma, Oidiodendron, Paradendryphiella, Penicillium, Pseudoqymnoascus, Tolypocladium, Trichoderma, Sarocladium, Talaromyces, Umbelopsis. Hydrocarbon-oxidizing activity of fungi was carried out in a laboratory experiment for two time periods: 14 and 28 days. The residual concentration of oil hydrocarbons in the medium was determined by the infrared spectrometry method. We revealed that micromycetes had different oil-destructive activity. The decrease in oil content for the strains over 14 days ranged from 11 to 83 %. Tolypocladium inflatum st.1, T. inflatum st.2, Penicillium thomii, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, P. simplicissimum, P. camemberti, P. solitum and Trichoderma minutisporum strains had the greatest oil destructive activity, reducing the concentration in the medium by 57–83 %. These micromycetes were isolated from coastal substrates, the content of oil products in which did not exceed the MPC. We found that some individual strains of microscopic fungi had high oil-destructive activity for a longer period of time: Tolypocladium cylindrosporum reduced the content of oil hydrocarbons for 28 days by 95 %. No clear relationship between the fungal biomass and the degree of decomposition of oil products was found, but some tolerant species of micromycetes can actively decompose oil hydrocarbons without significantly increasing their biomass. The identified active strains of hydrocarbon-oxidizing micromycetes can be used to create biopreparations with the prospect of their further use for bioremediation of oil spills in the northern marine ecosystems.

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