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    • Водные биоресурсы и среда обитания. Том 4, вып. 4

      Bragina, T.M. (Azov-Black Sea Branch of the FSBSI “VNIRO” (“AZNIIRKH”)Rostov-on-Don, Russia, 2021)
      GIS technology in the investigation of morphometric characteristics of the wintering pits in the Upper Reach of the Tsimlyansk Reservoir has been applied. Amphipods of the marine farms in Sevastopol coastal waters (Black Sea) have been investigated. New data on finding of alien prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (Decapoda, Palaemonidae) in the Don River (Azov Sea Basin) have been presented. Ichthyoplankton of the Russian territorial waters and exclusive economic zone in the Black Sea has been studied. Parasite fauna of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758) juveniles in the growing ponds of the Azov and Black Sea Fishery Basin has been identified. Comparative analysis of fishing conditions for the Azov Sea anchovy in September–November, 2019 and 2020 has been made.
    • On the announcement of the III International Scientific and Practical Conference “Biological Diversity: Study, Conservation, Restoration, Rational Use”, held on September 13–18, 2022 (Kerch State Maritime Technological University, Kerch, Russia)

      Azov-Black Sea Branch of VNIRO (2021)
      ОСНОВНЫЕ ТЕМАТИЧЕСКИЕ НАПРАВЛЕНИЯ: 1. Фундаментальная биология. 2. Наземные экосистемы. 3. Водные экосистемы. 4. Экологическое воспитание и образование. 5. Биоразнообразие и благополучие населения.
    • Results of the comparative analysis of fishing conditions for the Azov Sea anchovy in September–November, 2019 and 2020

      Panov, B.N.; Smirnov, S.S.; Spiridonova, E.O.; Negoda, S.A.; Trusova, K.T. (2021)
      The data on the stock and abundance of the European anchovy, its age, length, and weight characteristics, and the information on its distribution in the sea before the start of its fishing season have been considered. Abiotic environmental conditions of anchovy autumn migration have been monitored using daily indicators of atmospheric transfers in the area, as well as temperature and sea surface level (altimetry) at various locations of the Kerch pre-strait zones of the Azov and Black Seas from September 20 to November 20. In October 2020, the Azov Sea anchovy was in a better physiological state than in 2019, even though its stock remained virtually the same. Its fishing in the Black Sea in 2019 started early, lasted long, and was low-efficient; in 2020, on the contrary, it was late, short, and productive. Favorable conditions for the start of anchovy fishing in the Azov Sea were created by the northwestern atmospheric transfers and southeastern surface currents in the pre-strait zone of the Azov Sea, and the northern atmospheric transfers and southern surface currents in the Kerch Strait were more favorable for the anchovy migration to the Black Sea. Anchovy fishing in the Azov Sea started at the sea surface temperature 17.0–17.5 °C, and its large-scale fishing in the Black Sea started at 16 °C. In the Kerch pre-strait zone of the Black Sea, the predominance of eastern geostrophic currents facilitates the migration of the Azov Sea anchovy to the Caucasian coast. The strengthening of these currents facilitates the anchovy migration and reduces the effectiveness of its fishing, and their weakening exerts an adverse impact on its migration but increases the effectiveness of its fishing.
    • Parasite fauna of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758) juveniles in the growing ponds of the Azov and Black Sea Fishery Basin

      Khorosheltseva, V.N.; Strizhakova, T.V.; Kerimova, A.A.; Denisova, T.V. (2021)
      Fish farms located in the Azov and Black Sea Basin contribute greatly to the development of the fisheries and aquaculture in the Russian Federation. Here, the main cultivation targets are carp species, especially common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758). This work is aimed at the updating of the data on the current composition of the parasite fauna of the common carp from the rearing ponds of the Azov and Black Sea Fishery Basin. At the early stages of post-embryonic development, carp juveniles are exposed to parasite infestation both with a direct life cycle (before their transition to exogenous feeding) and with a complex life cycle (upon feeding on zooplankton organisms and benthos). At the investigated fish farms, the range of parasites in the carp juveniles covered 16 species from 5 classes: Peritricha (Trichodina sp. Ehrenberg, 1830), Monogenea (Dactylogyrus extensus Mueller et Van Cleave, 1932, Dactylogyrus sp. Mueller et Van Cleave, 1932, Gyrodactylus sp. Mueller et Van Cleave, 1932), Trematoda (Diplostomum sp. met. Nordmann, 1832, Posthodiplostomum cuticola met. Nordmann, 1832, Tylodelphys clavata met. Nordmann, 1832), Nematoda (Nematoda sp. l. Rudolphi, 1808, Spiroxys contortus l. Rudolphi, 1819), Cestoda (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, B. opsariichthydis Yamaguti, 1934, Khawia sinensis Hsü, 1935, Neogryporhynchus cheilancristrotus Wedl, 1855, Paradilepis scolecina Rudolphi, 1819) and Crustacea (Lernaea elegans Leigh-Sharpe, 1925, Ergasilus sieboldi Nordmann, 1832). A considerable share (31.25 %) of the total number of parasites detected was comprised of the representatives of Cestoda class, found in four farms out of five investigated. Infestation rates for most parasite species were low, except for the Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi.
    • Ichthyoplankton of the Russian territorial waters and exclusive economic zone in the Black Sea

      Nadolinsky, V.P.; Patyuk, V.V.; Efanov, A.D. (2021)
      Survival rate of a generation at the embryonic and larval stages of the life cycle plays a crucial role in the formation of fish stocks. The data on the distribution of the fish individuals at the early stages of their development allow for the mitigation of anthropogenic negative impact on the stocks of aquatic living resources. This study has been aimed at the investigation of the species composition and abundance of thermophilic and psychrophilic fish species at the early stages of their development in the Russian territorial waters and exclusive economic zone in the Black Sea, as well as the assessment of their status in these areas. Sampling was conducted using a cone-shaped ichthyoplankton net with 80 cm diameter opening (IKS-80), off the board of the vessel going through the circling motion at 3 knot speed for 10 minutes. In the summer season, the major share of the individuals caught at their embryonic stages of development is comprised by the European anchovy, red mullet, Atlantic horse mackerel, and annular seabream eggs. Among early juveniles, the larvae of gobies, blennies, and pipefishes prevail. It has been found out that the highest diversity of the fish species at their early stages of development is recorded in the summer season: 58 species in the territorial waters, and 14 species in the exclusive economic zone. Winter ichthyoplankton is not very diverse—only 4 species have been recorded. In the territorial waters, littoral fish species at their early stages of development prevail. Ichthyoplankton catches in the exclusive economic zone are mostly comprised by pelagic zooplanktivorous and pelagic carnivorous species. In the winter ichthyoplankton catches, both in the territorial waters and in the exclusive economic zone, eggs and early juveniles of 4 fish species are recorded: European sprat (eggs and larvae), whiting (eggs and larvae), shore rockling (larvae), and sand lance (larvae). Low species diversity of the ichthyoplankton during the winter season results from the low number of winter-spawning species.
    • Development of flour confectionery products with reduced sugar content

      Tumashov, A. A.; Gavrilov, A. S.; Chugunova, O. V.; Bulygina, O. Yu. (2021)
      The search for equivalent flavoring sugar substitutes of a non-sugar nature is an urgent direction in the development of the technology of flour confectionery products. In the course of research, a gingerbread recipe has been developed with a partial replacement of the prescription sugar with a 15 % solution of sucralose in glycerin, which most closely correspond to the organoleptic characteristics (taste, smell, texture) of traditional flour confectionery products. The results of the organoleptic evaluation of coded prototypes of gingerbread with the involvement of experts have shown that a decrease in sugar concentration by 25 % does not lead to a statistically significant change in organoleptic parameters in comparison with control samples. Substitution of more than 30 % sugar leads to an increase in the plasticity of the dough complicating the operation of the dosing mechanisms; at the same time, the taste of the products changes (these changes are noted during the tasting assessment); their consistency becomes denser. In the process of research, the stability of the quantitative and qualitative properties of gingerbread during storage has been proved. Experimental samples of gingerbread with 25 % reduced sugar content retain all the indicators established by GOST for their storage for 90 days without statistically significant changes. The decomposition of sucralose in the manufacture of the dough is 0.1 %, in the baking process – 2.6 %, during storage for 120 days – 6.7 % (of the loaded product). The developed recipe allows enterprises to expand the range of confectionery products with reduced sugar content.
    • Specialized sports nutrition products using protein hydrolysis compositions of collagen-containing fish raw materials

      Romanenko, N. Yu.; Mezenova, O. Ya.; Nekrasova, Yu. O. (2021)
      The development of specialized sports nutrition with components of collagen-containing fish raw materials is due to the shortage of domestic products of this group, the problem of fish waste processing, scientific data on bioactive peptides of marine origin. Low-molecular active peptides and protein-mineral compositions in the form of powder and liquid dietary supplements were obtained from the scales of sardine and sardinella by methods of deep hydrolysis. During the hydrolysis of raw materials, fermentolysis was carried out with the Alcalase 2.5L enzyme, thermohydrolysis – at temperatures of 130–140 °C. The chemical composition of the scales of two fish species, the products of its hydrolysis, and the amino acid composition of its proteins have been studied. The amount of low-molecular-weight peptides in hydrolysates of sardine scales was investigated by various methods of hydrolysis. Rational methods of hydrolysis of scales – enzymatic and enzymatic-thermal – have been substantiated. They make it possible to obtain protein supplements with protein content of 83.9–85.2 % with a proportion of active peptides with a molecular weight of less than 10 kDa 91.7–98.1 %. A technology for obtaining protein supplements from fish scales has been developed, and their amino acid composition has been studied. The presence of irreplaceable and ergogenic amino acids, accompanying nitrogenous compounds, valuable in sports nutrition, was shown in the peptide supplement. An increased content of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium in the protein-mineral dietary supplement being important for the musculoskeletal tissues of an athlete has been established. On the basis of protein supplements in dry and liquid forms with the addition of beekeeping products, the technology of chewing marmalade for sports nutrition has been developed. Bioproduct "Apikolltonus" belongs to the class of gainers with a protein content of 20.5 %, a carbohydrate of 41.6 % with an amino acid value of BCAA (isoleucine : leucine : valine) 2 : 1 : 1.5. A multicomponent bar for sports nutrition has been developed using protein hydrolysates of scales, flaxseed and apple cakes, and pine nuts. The bar is functional in terms of the content of calcium and phosphorus, dietary fiber, flavonoids, and vitamin E. Recommendations for the use of new sports nutrition products are substantiated.
    • Application of the linear method of discriminant analysis of reflectance spectra in the near infrared region for the species identification of fish of the Salmonidae family

      Novikov, V. Yu.; Rysakova, K. S.; Baryshnikov, A. V. (2021)
      It is well known that fish belonging to the Salmonidae family differ in their nutritional value. Anatomical and morphological features of different salmon species have a certain similarity; therefore, representatives of this family are most often falsified. Assortment falsification of products from fish of this family is usually carried out by replacing more valuable species with cheaper ones with a reduced nutritional value. Most often, counterfeiting of Atlantic salmon (salmon) by Far Eastern ones (chum salmon, pink salmon, chinook salmon, coho salmon) is found. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) is now increasingly used for identification and authentication of closely related organisms, in some cases being a rapid method replacing genetic analysis. We have obtained diffusion reflectance spectra of NIR radiation for three species of fish from the Northern Basin belonging to the salmon family. The best classification by fish species has been obtained by analyzing the NIR spectra of pre-dried fat-free muscle tissue samples. In case of wet samples, the observed differences are less significant, up to insignificant differences in individual values from neighboring clusters. The possibility of using the method of linear discriminant analysis of the NIR reflection spectra of muscle proteins for the species identification of fish has been shown.
    • Investigation of the chemical composition of pumpkin pulp as a basis for soft drinks

      Shkolnikova, M. N.; Abbazova, V. N. (2021)
      Pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita spp.) have a number of advantages and high technological potential, thanks to almost universal cultivation in a wide range of agro-climatic conditions, the ability to long-term storage, the content of dietary fibers, pectin and other polysaccharides, carotenoids, polyphenolic substances, vitamins, which cause a wide range of physiological orientation. In the process of researching the composition of local cultivars of pumpkin and the world experience of using Cucurbita spp. in the composition of food products, the need to use this ingredient in beverage recipes has been substantiated. The content of dry substances in the pumpkin samples is from 8.18 % ("Gribovskaya") to 11.6 % ("Orange bush"). The maximum sugar content is distinguished by the varieties "Winter Sweet" (6.87 %) and "Orange Bush" (7.40 %). The content of BAS-antioxidants is (without visible difference depending on the growing region): carotenoids from 1.3 mg/100 g in "Gribovskaya" to 2.0 mg/100 g – "Orange bush"; ascorbic acid – 8.7 mg/100 g in "Rossiyanka" to 14.2 mg/100 g – "Orange bush". Today all parts of the pumpkin fruit are used: the bark is a raw material for the production of feed flour and a substrate for the cultivation of lactobacilli, the seeds are traditionally used to produce pumpkin oil and flour, the pulp of the fruit is a raw material for juice-containing products, purees, carotenoid-containing and polysaccharide extracts, pectin, concentrates of first and second dishes, snack products, pasta, bakery, confectionery and meat products, etc.
    • Fatty acid composition of yogurt drink based on mare's milk

      Kanareykina, S. G.; Chernyshenko, Yu. N.; Kanareykin, V. I.; Rakhmatullina, I. F. (2021)
      In accordance with the local climatic conditions and folk traditions in the Republic of Bashkortostan, dairy horse breeding occupies a leading position. Mare's milk is a unique raw material for the production of a wide variety of highly nutritious, complete and easily digestible food products. Scientists recommend mare's milk as a medicinal and dietary product. The paper presents a yogurt recipe developed on the basis of a composition using mare's milk. The composition received patent No 2677219 (Composition…, 2019). It is known that mare's milk fat is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are of particular physiological importance for the human body. There is a need to ration and ensure a constant intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids of the ω-3 family with food. The purpose of this work is to study the fatty acid composition of yoghurt. To obtain a fermented milk product, milk from Bashkir mares was used as raw material. The production and research of prototypes of yoghurt were carried out on the basis of the Faculty of Food Technologies of the Bashkir State Agrarian University. The determination of the fatty acid composition of the yoghurt sample took place in the accredited testing laboratory centre "Federal Research Centre for Nutrition and Biotechnology" (Moscow). The use of mare's milk allows one to change the fatty acid composition of the finished fermented milk product. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of the sample has showed that it has a high content of oleic, γ-linolenic, α-linolenic and arachidonic acids.
    • Production technology and quality assessment of milk shakes for baby food with vitamin complex enrichment

      Boyarshinova, E. V. (2021)
      Diversification of dairy products for baby food is a topical trend in the development of the dairy industry. In the process of producing an ultra-heat-treated (UHT) milkshake, milk with a mass fraction of fat 3.5 %, skim milk with a mass fraction of fat 0.5 %, fruit filling "Cherry" and a vitamin premix are used. The technological process of production includes the acceptance of raw materials, assessment of their quality in accordance with regulatory documents; heat treatment of raw milk; preparation of a normalized mixture; adding ingredients. The prepared mixture is sent for deaeration to a flow-through apparatus, then to a homogenizer, where it is subjected to ultra-pasteurization at a temperature of 136 ± 2 °C with a holding time of 4 ± 1 s. The final stage of cocktail production is packaging and intermediate storage. The resulting product was tested in the laboratory for organoleptic and physicochemical indicators. During the experiments, it has been found that the taste, smell, colour, appearance and consistency meet the requirements of state standards. The content of protein, fat, carbohydrates, calcium and titratable acidity are within acceptable values; the content of vitamins A, D3, E, B6 is higher than the minimum values. The research results on safety indicators meet the requirements of technical regulations. Antibiotics, GMO-derived materials and preservatives are not found in the product. The energy value of the baby milk shake is 63.7 kcal (266.6 kJ/100 g of product).
    • Analysis of depolymerization of insulating compositions of electric motor windings based on ultrasonic radiation

      Kashin, A. I.; Nemirovsky, A. E. (2021)
      This work is a continuation of the fundamental study on implementing an innovative method of repairing electric motors using ultrasound. A study of the method of dismantling windings based on ultrasound has been carried out for the purpose of energy efficiency, environmental friendliness and less time spent on the repair cycle of electric motors in terms of removing the stator winding. The investigated dismantling method is optimal for a number of technical issues in comparison with the existing methods for dismantling electric motor windings. In the work, the main focus is on the material of the winding insulation. Lacquer and compound types of insulation of industrial electric motors, which are the main ones everywhere, have been analyzed. The analysis of the impregnating electrical insulating compositions of the stator windings of electric motors and the influence of ultrasound on them during dismantling of the windings of electric motors at different levels of influence of forcing factors: duration and power of ultrasonic action, concentration and temperature of the working solution. The applied mathematical software systems for calculation and modeling guarantee the reliability and rationality of the results of the experiments obtained during the work. A system of equations has been modeled and models of the effect of useful factors relative to each other have been constructed, the results obtained have been optimized and the optimal parameters of both varnish and compound insulation systems have been identified. The optimal parameters of the investigated types of insulation show encouraging results on many important points: duration, energy consumption, environmental friendliness.
    • Effects of bioactive compounds upon the deterioration of the chilled mechanically deboned poultry meat during storage

      Voitsekhovskaya, L. I.; Franko, Ye. V.; Verbytskyi, S. B.; Okhrimenko, Yu. I. (2021)
      Mechanically deboned poultry meat is a valuable protein containing raw material widely used for the production of meat products. However, it does not have a high resistance to oxidation; therefore, various antioxidants including those of natural origin are used in its composition. The article provides information on the advisability of using rosemary extract and dihydroquercetin to stabilize lipids and interrupt hydrolytic and chain oxidative processes in mechanically deboned poultry meat. The permissible storage time for mechanically deboned poultry meat using the rosemary extract and dihydroquercetin in a chilled state is 96 hours. Research has been carried out on the oxidative processes of the fatty complex of mechanically deboned poultry meat during the refrigerated storage period. Antioxidants prevent the accumulation of peroxides: in the samples with their use, the peroxide number reaches critical values on 6th–7th day of storage, without their use – on 3th day of storage. For all samples, a gradual increase in the acid number has been observed; however, for samples without antioxidants its values reach a critical level on the 4th day of storage, with the use of antioxidants – on the 7th day. The active formation of secondary oxidation products has begun from the second day of storage and reached the limit of permissible values in samples without antioxidants after 3 days of storage. In samples with antioxidants, the thiobarbituric number reaches a critical value on the 6th day. It has also been shown that the use of antioxidants contributes to the preservation of sensorial indicators (colour, odour) improving the quality of products. The efficiency of using the rosemary extract and dihydroquercetin as inhibitors of the oxidation of mechanically deboned poultry meat has been confirmed.
    • Resistance change of contact groups of low-voltage electrical apparatus: Determining the laws

      Gracheva, E. I.; Gorlov, A. N.; Alimova, A. N.; Mukhanova, P. P. (2021)
      The main Russian and foreign manufacturers of low-voltage electrical devices – circuit breakers, fuses, magnetic starters, knife switches and packet switches are presented. The data of experiments for determining the resistance values of contact groups of low-voltage switching equipment are considered. The design features of the devices that determine the value of the resistances of the power circuits of low-voltage equipment are investigated and a classification is proposed depending on the design elements of the devices. A methodological approach and an algorithm for experiments and detailed analysis of the contact groups of devices are given. Experimental schemes for the study of contact groups are proposed. The data of the conducted experiments on the study of contact groups and the resistance values as a function of the flowing currents are shown. During the experiments it is revealed that the value of the resistance of the contacts changes depending on the value, type and time of exposure to current within +/–5 %. The laws that characterize the ratio of the resistance values of the structural components of devices (contact systems, thermal relay, coil of the maximum relay) have been revealed and defined. Empirical expressions and graphical dependences of the resistances of contacts and contact systems are obtained as a function of the magnitude of the rated currents of low-voltage contact equipment. The minimum sample size of the number of devices during experimental research is determined, sufficient to calculate the mathematical expectation of the resistances of the contact connections of the devices with a given accuracy. As a result of experimental studies, it is revealed that the resistance value of contacts and contact joints can increase during operation by 2–2.5 times. The established dependences of the change in contact resistance can be used to predict the technical state of electrical installations of intrashop low-voltage networks, to clarify the amount of electricity losses in shop networks up to 1 kV, and can also be used as an additional regulation for maintenance and scheduled preventive maintenance.
    • Development of fermented product using dispersion from domestic breeding peas

      Veber, A. L.; Leonova, S. A.; Nikiforova, T. A.; Zhiarno, M.; Badamshina, E. V.; Lisin, P. А. (2021)
      Currently, there is a steady trend in the world aimed at finding new raw protein sources and their industrial processing into functional food products. The modern food market is represented among other things by non-alcoholic beverages from plant raw materials (vegetable "milk", fermented plant drinks), combined fermented milk products of complex raw materials, which are becoming popular among consumers and are in high demand among the population. The study shows the possibility of using pea grains of Bashkir Research Institute of Agriculture BashSC RAS (BRIA, Republic of Bashkortostan) varieties in the technology of obtaining fermented products. Consumer qualities, the chemical composition of pea varieties of the BRIA selection (Chishminsky 95, Chishminsky 229, Pamyati Khangildin, Yuldash) and their ability to germinate have been investigated. The possibility of their use for obtaining a plant dispersion intended for manufacturing fermented products from plant raw materials has been established.
    • Analysis of XLPE cable parameters subject to thermo aging

      Buev, S. A. (2021)
      Modern marine vessels use electrically driven rudders; cruise liners, gas carriers, tankers are equipped with Azipod systems manufactured by the Swedish-Swiss company ABB. Gondola-type propellers make it possible to break ice when the vessel is moving astern, therefore such vessels are used for work on the Northern Sea Route, in particular, when working on the Yamal LNG project. The 22MW Azipod propulsion system rotates 360° and enables difficult maneuvering without the assistance of tugs. When operating such propellers, powerful diesel generators are installed on the ship. For the transmission of electricity, ship cables are used, which are subject to increased requirements that meet the standard of the International Electrotechnical Commission. Modern marine vessels are equipped with XLPE or EPDM insulated cable lines; industrial production of these cables is carried out in the Russian Federation. In the course of the study, a method for auditing the state of insulation has been considered based on an assessment of the change in the tangent of the angle of dielectric losses in the process of thermal aging of the cable of the PvBPng(A)-HF brand. Measurements of the tangent of the dielectric losses' angle have been carried out with a Tangens-2000 insulation parameter meter.
    • New data on finding of alien prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (Decapoda, Palaemonidae) in the Don River (Azov Sea Basin)

      Zhivoglyadova, L.A.; Nebesikhina, N.A.; Elfimova, N.S.; Afanasyev, D.F. (2021)
      For the first time, a freshwater prawn of the genus Macrobrachium Spence Bate, 1868, earlier unknown for the basin of the Azov Sea, was recorded in the lower reaches of the Don River in September, 2019. Based on their morphological characteristics, the found specimens were identified as M. nipponense (De Haan, 1849). This work presents the results of genetic analysis confirming the species status of the prawn, and also reports on new discovery and spreading of this species in the Don River. Oriental river prawn M. nipponense is a subtropical species, in its natural range widespread in Southeast Asia. Since the middle of the 1960s, this species is rapidly expanding its range in Eurasia. In a temperate climatic zone within the area of the former USSR, this thermophilic species was introduced in cooling ponds of thermal power plants (TPP). Acclimatization of M. nipponense was carried out as a part of warm-water aquaculture in order to improve the food supply of fish and enrich the fauna of TPP cooling ponds. This paper summarizes the available information about the formation of stable populations of M. nipponense within the area of the former USSR countries, as well as an assessment of the risks of invasion in the Don River.
    • Amphipods of the marine farms in Sevastopol coastal waters (Black Sea)

      Grintsov, V.A.; Shchurov, S.V. (2021)
      Amphipods are one of the main taxa of invertebrates inhabiting the structures of marine farms. On the collectors of oyster and mussel farms in the Black Sea, their density reaches more than 200,000 ind.·m2 of the projected surface of the substrate. Amphipods, being a valuable food source for a number of fish and invertebrate species, as well as a consumer of organic matter, can increase the productivity of the Black Sea coastal waters. This work is aimed at the evaluation of the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of amphipods, as well as their biodiversity on the collectors of marine farms. To assess the species composition, biodiversity, and density of amphipods, standard methods have been used; the density was calculated per m2 of the projected surface of the substrate, based on the geometry of the marine farm components. 17 species of amphipods have been identified on the marine farm components, the most abundant of them being Jassa marmorata Holmes, 1905, Stenothoe monoculoides (Montagu, 1813), and Microdeutopus gryllotalpa Costa, 1853. The total density of amphipods in one sample on the farm structures reached 211,919 ind.·m2 of the projected surface of the substrate. The components of marine farms can facilitate the increase in the biodiversity and improve the quantitative characteristics of amphipods, which would result in the growth of the productivity rates of the Black Sea coastal waters.
    • Assessment of overgrowth of the Chelbas group of the Azov Sea Limans with aquatic vegetation

      Bondarenko, L.G.; Kulba, S.N.; Petrashov, V.I.; Smirnov, S.S.; Matveeva, E.I.; Rudakova, N.A. (2021)
      The Chelbas Limans play crucial role in the reproduction of semi-anadromous fish species. The efficiency of their spawning is closely related to the overgrowth of spawning grounds, therefore, the study of aquatic vegetation in the limans is essential for fisheries. This study is aimed at the investigation of the area and intensity of overgrowth of the Chelbas Limans with aquatic vegetation using remote sensing and GIS technologies. The materials on the dynamics of overgrowth of the Azov Sea limans belonging to the Chelbas group are presented for the period 2016–2021. The assessment of the overgrowth of these water bodies was carried out using the Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI) and the radiometric Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), which were calculated from the multispectral images of the European Space Agency Sentinel-2 satellite. The data of satellite remote sensing have been compared with the data of botanical surveys and visual observations. The area of overgrowth with aquatic vegetation in the Kushchevaty Liman varied within the range from 15 to 93 %, in the Gorkiy Liman it ranged within 12–65 %, and in the Sladkiy Liman the overgrowth area did not exceed 1.7 %. A four-level classification of the overgrowth of the water bodies according to the NDVI is proposed: class 0 is from -1.0 to -0.1, class 1 is from -0.1 to 0.3, class 2 is from 0.3 to 0.5, and class 3 is from 0.5 to 1.0. Examination of the aquatic vegetation in the Chelbas Limans has shown the dependence of the area of overgrowth of these water bodies with macrophytes on the regime of freshwater and seawater influx to the limans.
    • Application of GIS technology in the investigation of morphometric characteristics of the wintering pits in the Upper Reach of the Tsimlyansk Reservoir

      Kochetkova, A.I.; Bryzgalina, E.S. (2021)
      The shallow waters of the Upper Reach are the most productive natural spawning grounds in the Tsimlyansk Reservoir. The hydrological regime of the Upper Reach is of a channel type, which results in a high flow rate and contributes to the formation of deep-water areas and shallow-water ones (riffles) along the channel. In turn, deep-water areas play a key role in the preservation of aquatic biological resources during the most unfavorable periods of the year. This work was aimed at the comprehensive morphological investigation of the wintering pits in the Upper Reach of the Tsimlyansk Reservoir in 2019, as well as at the analysis of the materials collected in its course. This article presents the data collected during the bathymetric survey of the wintering pits in the Upper Reach of the Tsimlyansk Reservoir; using GIS, the morphometric characteristics of seven wintering pits have been calculated, and three-dimensional models of the bottom relief of these wintering pits have been created. During this investigation, three new wintering pits — Kalachevskaya, Lipo-Lebedenovskaya, and a pit in the vicinity of khutor Peskovatka — have been identified. A comprehensive analysis of the collected data indicates that the most pronounced in terms of the bottom topography wintering pits are Kalachevskaya, Golubinskaya, Nabatovskaya, and Peskovatskaya.