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  • Greater flamingos as winged flagship species at the boundaries of Circeo Man and Biosphere Reserve

    Gaglioti, Martina (Self-published, 2024)
    The greater flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus, Pallas 1811) is a typical migratory Mediterranean species, even if considered nesting in the area only from few years to date, with a first documentation of a nesting event in Italy in 1993 (Schenk et al., 1995; Béchet et al., 2009). The typical coloring pattern due to the feeding strategy adopted by these migrating birds make the species particularly interesting from the wider audience. It is what was observed in the nearby of the transitional ecosystems associated to the brackish water of Caprolace Lake. This place is not so crowded normally, but due to the presence of many photographers and curious observers the presence of the pinkish colony turned rapidly the lake shores into a meeting point for many curious eyes attracted from this natural astonishing event. On 2nd February is normally celebrated the World Wetland Day and this contribution is published accordingly, in order to celebrate somehow these field observations occurred in the nearby of this important date, considered as the anniversary of the adoption of the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, signed in Ramsar on 2 February 1971.
  • Application of the "electronic nose" for evaluating volatile compounds of semi-finished small fish

    Alloyarova, Yuliya V. (2023)
    Vestnik of MSTU
    The production of canned food is one of the dynamically developing segments of the fishing industry. An instrumental assessment of the composition of highly volatile fractions (aromas) of smoked semi-finished capelin products sent for the production of canned food has been carried out using a MAG 8 odor analyzer in the equilibrium gas phase above the samples. To reliably establish differences in the composition of highly volatile compounds, the method of preliminary concentration of components in a sampler has been used. After saturation of the free space above the sample, the signals increased from 2.5 to 3 times when the sensors were loaded with the equilibrium gas phase. However, no fundamental differences in the nature of the influence of different methods of processing semi-finished capelin products have been established. Under native (natural) conditions for the formation of the odor of capelin samples and their preliminary concentration in the equilibrium gas phase, the qualitative and quantitative compositions of the odor differ, but the tendency remains for a higher content of compounds in the sample treated with smoke gel compared to frozen capelin and the sample treated with a smoke-air mixture. For saturated vapors, it has been established that according to 3 parameters (contributions to the sorption of sensors 1, 3, 8), samples treated with a smoke-air mixture and smoke gel have a similar composition (unlike frozen capelin). Sensors 5, 6 and 7 do not distinguish the smell of all samples, i.e. they react to volatile compounds of capelin. Sensor 4 reflects the proximity of the moisture indicators of frozen capelin and capelin treated with smoking gel. As a result of the correlation analysis, the correspondence of the obtained chemical samples has been established, including a greater influence on the composition of highly volatile fractions (aroma) when using a smoke-air mixture compared to using a smoking gel.
  • Neural networks as a tool for improving the mathematical model of ship motion

    Pashentsev, S. V. (2023)
    Vestnik of MSTU
    Using neural networks opens up great opportunities for studying mathematical models of ship motion. Correction by a network of identified parameters of the selected model should be as adequate as possible to the results of standard full-scale tests defined by the IMO Resolution N 137 of 2002. A mathematical model in displacements is considered, containing 16 parameters that determine the hydrodynamic forces acting on the ship's hull and steering gear, and is the source of a data set for training the network by randomly varying the parameters and subsequent computer testing. The standard maneuver is a steady-state circulation with fixation of the maneuvering elements: diameter, linear velocity, drift angle and angular velocity of rotation. Improving the quality of the model has consisted of changing its parameters and minimizing the mean square errors of the values of the maneuvering elements obtained during testing. For these purposes, a neural network with 16 inputs (model parameters) and four outputs (maneuvering elements for steady-state circulation) has been built. The data set for training the network was obtained using a program developed by the authors and intended for calculating parameters and conducting maneuver tests. A tanker with a displacement of 30,000 tons was chosen as a test object. Various options for network architecture and tools for working with it have been considered; the Statistica Neural Nets (SNN) software environment and the ANN package in the SciLab environment have been used. Comparative assessments of the results of working with these tools have been given.
  • Results of a statistical study of types of single-phase faults in low-voltage ship electrical networks

    Kazhekin, Ilya E.; Kharitonov, Maxim S. (2023)
    Vestnik of MSTU
    The increase in the power supply of ships is manifested in growth of ship power plants' capacity, the total length of cable lines, and the number of electrified mechanisms. With the development of marine technology, the severity of the consequences of damage to ship electrical equipment and the costs of its maintenance and repair increase. The search for ways to improve the reliability and safety of electrical equipment should be based on design and technological solutions at the stages of its development and production, as well as an analysis of various factors that may appear during the operation of marine equipment and affect the condition of ship electrical systems. During studying these factors, it has been revealed that one of the common types of damage to electrical equipment of marine equipment is single-phase short circuits, the causes of which are varied. Preventing short circuits is labour intensive and in some cases impracticable. However, understanding the characteristics of this type of damage to low-voltage equipment is necessary to improve the reliability and safety of ship electrical systems. The conducted research is based on a survey of ship electrical mechanics. The results of the surveys have made it possible to analyze the frequency of occurrence of single-phase insulation faults, the duration of their existence, to identify the most likely places of occurrence of short circuits and equipment that is more susceptible to such damage compared to other elements of the electrical power system.
  • Comparative analysis of the production potential of the water bodies subjected to varying rates of fishing exploitation

    Труды АзНИИРХ / Proceedings of AzNIIRKH
    The hydrochemical characterization of the Lysyy (Bold) Liman Lake and Volchy Vorota (Wolf Gates) Reservoir is given. The data on its food resources and current ichthyofauna composition are given. Based on the analysis of the exploitable stock estimates and the data from the actual catches, commercial productivity of the indicated water bodies has been compared in the context of the attempted introduction of herbivorous fish species in one of them and natural development of the ichthyofauna in the other one.
  • Prospects for the use of the Chelbas Limans in the reproduction of semi-anadromous fish species

    Vishnevskiy, S. L.; Petrashov, V. I.; Rudakova, N. A.; Matveeva, E. I. (2023)
    Труды АзНИИРХ / Proceedings of AzNIIRKH
    For the first time since 1970s, a comparative analysis of the species composition of the commercial ichthyofauna in the Chelbas Limans has been conducted based on long-term surveys. The volumes of natural production of juveniles of semi-anadromous fish species (zander and roach) are presented with the main environmental reasons (water regime and overgrowth) that have influenced the structural transformaton of the ichthyocenoses of the Chelbas Limans over the last half-century. The prospects for using the limans for reproduction of semi-anadromous fish species are shown.
  • Microsporidiosis of flatfishes caused by Tetramicra brevifilum

    Maltsev, V. N. (2023)
    Труды АзНИИРХ / Proceedings of AzNIIRKH
    This article summarizes existing scientific data on microsporidiosis of flatfishes caused by Tetramicra brevifilum. This disease has not yet been recorded in the Azov and Black Seas, but it is found in the adjacent Mediterranean region and the European Atlantic, where it is one of the most prevalent turbot diseases in the context of the commercial cultivation of this fish species. Scientific information on the pathogen, patterns of the disease progression, its geographical distribution, as well as clinical, pathological, epizootic and other features of invasion is given. The danger of the microsporidia T. brevifilum for the Azov and Black Sea flatfishes results from their potential susceptibility to this disease, as well as the possibility of the introduction of this pathogen into the Black Sea due to climate warming, ornamental fish keeping, natural migration of Mediterranean fish species and transportation of stocking material (eggs, juveniles, breeders) for marine cultivation facilities. Methodological approaches to the diagnosis of this disease are described.
  • Scientific peer-reviewed journal “Aquatic Bioresources & Environment” celebrates its fifth anniversary

    Bragina, Tatyana; Mikhaylyuk, Ekaterina A.; Reshitko, Elena E.; Savchuk, Elena A. (2023)
    Труды АзНИИРХ / Proceedings of AzNIIRKH
    In 2023, the scientific peer-reviewed journal “Aquatic Bioresources & Environment” celebrates its first major birthday: 5 years since its first publication. Since 2021, the journal has been included in the List of peer-reviewed scientific publications, in which the main scientific results of dissertations for the degree of Candidate of Science and for the degree of Doctor of Science should be published (List of the Higher Attestation Commission), and is indexed in the Russian Science Citation Index (RSCI); its abstracts are submitted to the International Information System for Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA). Full texts of the articles are available in open access at the official website of the journal and the Scientific Electronic Library (eLIBRARY), as well as on other web platforms accessible through search engines. All articles are assigned with Digital Object Identifiers (DOI), which, in turn, are registered by the international agency Crossref. In 2023, the leading journals of the Russian Federation go through the process of verification and ranking. At present, the journal is included into the category K2 in the List of the Higher Attestation Commission and has major achievements among the Russian scientific periodical publications.
  • Development of processing technology for the preserves derived from the barrel jellyfish Rhizostoma pulmo (Macri, 1778)

    Esina, Lyubov; Belyakova, Irina A. (2023)
    Труды АзНИИРХ / Proceedings of AzNIIRKH
    Production of preserves is being considered as a possible option for the barrel jellyfish Rhizostoma pulmo processing. This work presents the results of experimental studies on production of the preserves derived from the jellyfish that underwent salting and treatment with the tanning substances extracted from oak bark and green tea leaves. It has been noted that the organoleptic characteristics of the preserves in satay sauce and various spicy filling media are appealing for consumption. The investigated samples of the preserves, in terms of the mass percentages of the main product (jellyfish) and cooking salt, met the requirements of TR EAEU 040/2016. Based on the preliminary assessment, the shelf life of the preserves can last 2 months at the temperature 4±2 °С.
  • Effect of the experimental starter formula feeds on the cultivation and biological characteristics of the juveniles of mullet species using so-iuy mullet Liza haematocheilus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1845) = Mugil soiuy (Basilewsky, 1855) in the context of industrial rearing

    Turkulova, V. N.; Gershunskaya, V. V.; Zolotnitskiy, A. P.; Zaichenko, E. A.; Bobova, A. S.; Evchenko, O. V.; Kartamyshev, D. M.; Yakhovskaya, A. R. (2023)
    Труды АзНИИРХ / Proceedings of AzNIIRKH
    This work presents the preliminary results of the studies aimed at the estimation of the effect of experimental starter formula feeds developed by the FSBSI “VNIRO” on the cultivation-related biological characteristics and feed requirements of the so-iuy mullet juveniles reared in flowing-water tanks with the Kerch Strait as a water source. It has been identified that, out of the investigated set of formula feeds, the leading performance based on all criteria (growth rate, survival rate, feed conversion ratio) has been shown by KRLS 2/22 with low fish meal level. It has been found out that the survival rate of the juveniles also depends on the stocking density in the rearing tanks. Irrespective of the feed composition, the survival rate of the so-iuy mullet was significantly higher when the initial stocking density was 555 ind./m3 than when it was 1470 ind./m3.
  • Status assessment of the commercially valuable invertebrates of Syvash Bay and their environment based on the surveys conducted in 2021–2022

    Semik, A. M.; Zhugaylo, S. S.; Okunevich, V. A.; Zamyatina, E. M.; Pugach, M. N.; Filippova, T. V. (2023)
    Труды АзНИИРХ / Proceedings of AzNIIRKH
    The Western Syvash ecosystem has been investigated in the context of natural factors and anthropogenic pressure. The source empirical data have been collected during the field investigations of the Azov-Black Sea Branch of the FSBSI “VNIRO” (“AzNIIRKH”) conducted in the spring, summer and autumn seasons of 2021–2022. At present, the fisheries value of the investigated area stems from the presence of commercially valuable invertebrates. The hydrological and hydrochemical conditions have been described, and qualitative and quantitative parameters of the Pontogammarus, chironomids, Artemia and Artemia at the cyst stage have been evaluated. During the survey period, a considerable variation of the salinity values from the Northern Syvash to the Southern Syvash was observed, which is in line with the data for the previous years. The least favorable environmental conditions have developed in the area near Urozhaynoe Settlement, which mainly results from the influence of the natural factors (poor water circulation, shallow depths, irregular coastline, extensive algal bloom, and algal decay). This area was characterized by extremely low values of dissolved oxygen and high content of ammonium salts, as well as increased values of other hydrochemical parameters. Deterioration of the aquatic environment in this area has led to the decreased values of the Artemia quantitative parameters and high rates of cyst production. General changes in the stocks of the exploitable aquatic bioresources in this area can be attributed to the variations in salinity, wind-driven effects, wind direction, and the reduction of their favorable habitat.
  • Results of the study of commercial fish species in the Veselovsky Reservoir in 2021–2022

    Saenko, E. M.; Chubukov, V. V.; Ozhigov, G. A.; Golovko, G. V. (2023)
    Труды АзНИИРХ / Proceedings of AzNIIRKH
    This article presents the results of fish resource assessment conducted in 2021–2022 in the Veselovsky Reservoir and characterizes its major commercial fish species. The results of the investigation of the commercial fish stocks in the Veselovsky Reservoir characterize the physiological status of the populations as good based on a number of parameters (visceral fatness, conditional factor, fertility), which results from the abundance and diversity of the food supply and favorable environmental conditions. In the past two years, a noticeable increase in the stock abundance of commercial fish species has been observed in the Veselovsky Reservoir, which provides the ground to expect the formation of a stable resource for commercial fishing in the near future.
  • Conditions for the development of crayfish stocks in the Veselovsky Reservoir

    Saenko, E. M.; Zhukova, S. V.; Kosenko, Yu. V.; Korablina, I. V.; Trushkov, A. V.; Kotov, S. V. (2023)
    Труды АзНИИРХ / Proceedings of AzNIIRKH
    Crayfish is a long-established fisheries target in the water bodies of the Rostov Region. This work presents the data characterizing the pollution of water and bottom sediments with petroleum products, organochlorine pesticides, and heavy metals. The changes in the biological parameters of the crayfish population in the reservoir have been reviewed. The status of crayfish population, their stocks and abundance in the reservoir are conditional upon the existing range of abiotic and anthropogenic factors. The ecological improvement of the environment in 2020–2022 and the low concentrations of petroleum products, organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals facilitated the recovery of the crayfish exploitable stock that reached 32.9 t in 2022. In the consistently favourable conditions, under a regular monitoring of the productive crayfish populations, sustainable exploitation of their stocks and responsible control over their harvesting implemented by the fisheries protection authorities, this reservoir will retain its crayfish commercial importance.
  • Regional features of the wind regime of the Black Sea (in the Tuapse Region)

    Zhukova, S. V.; Podmareva, T. I.; Lutynskaya, L. A.; Burlachko, D. S.; Kalyuzhnaya, N. V. (2023)
    Труды АзНИИРХ / Proceedings of AzNIIRKH
    Specific features of the development of the wind regime in the coastal waters near Tuapse, Black Sea, have been investigated. The average and extreme characteristics of the wind regime (speed, direction, repeatability, strong winds, windless situations, local winds) are given.
  • Variability of atmospheric precipitation in the coastal part of the Tuapse Region of the Black Sea over the last 70-year observation period

    Zhukova, S. V.; Podmareva, T. I.; Lutynskaya, L. A.; Burlachko, D. S.; Karmanov, V. G.; Shishkin, V. M. (2023)
    Труды АзНИИРХ / Proceedings of AzNIIRKH
    The analysis of data series on average monthly and annual amounts of atmospheric precipitation in the coastal part of the Tuapse region of the Black Sea is carried out. The trends of atmospheric precipitation variability over a 70-year observation period were evaluated.
  • Formation patterns of wave activity in the coastal waters of the southeastern Russian sector of the Black Sea

    Zhukova, S. V.; Podmareva, T. I.; Burlachko, D. S.; Lutynskaya, L. A.; Bezrukavaya, E. A.; Karmanov, V. G.; Shishkin, V. M. (2023)
    Труды АзНИИРХ / Proceedings of AzNIIRKH
    The wave regime of the coastal waters in the Southeastern Russian sector of the Black Sea has been described based on the data of the wave-measuring station located in the area adjacent to Tuapse. The data of observations for the time range from 1975 to 2005 were used. Such characteristics as wave types, fetch lengths, wave type repeatability by month and direction, wave repeatability for the waves of different heights, the number of days with storm wave action, and the duration of storm wave conditions have been investigated. It is shown that the sea wave action in the coastal waters near Tuapse is determined by the observed wind, the influence of open sea waves, as well as by the orography of the sea port area, open to the wave systems from the southwest, south, and, to a lesser extent, from the west.
  • Overview of the objectives and outcomes of AzCherNIRO (YugNIRO) studies in the field of commercial oceanology and marine geology

    Panov, Boris N.; Kochergin, Anatoly T.; Smirnov, Sergey; Lanin, Vladimir I. (2023)
    Труды АзНИИРХ / Proceedings of AzNIIRKH
    The 60–80s of the last century were the period of the most rapid development of commercial oceanology in the Azov and Black Sea Scientific Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography (AzCherNIRO, further renamed YugNIRO). In addition to the monitoring of oceanographic processes, it was involved in the areas of general marine ecology, monitoring of marine pollution, and space oceanology. Oceanographic information is used in forecasting the state of aquatic ecosystems at various timescales and is crucial for fishing forecasts. In 1981, a satellite data reception center was established in AzCherNIRO. In the 80–90s, in YugNIRO, an optimal procedure was created for multidimensional predictive monitoring of the state of the Black Sea ecosystem. In September 1986, within the Laboratory of Commercial Oceanology of the Black Sea, a group for the conservation of marine ecosystems was created, which turned into a sector in January 1989, and into a separate laboratory in December 1996. Its reasearchers carried out multidisciplinary environmental studies, investigating the ecological status of the aquatic areas affected by the facilities of the marine industry during their operation, monitoring the level of soil contamination, and excercising the toxicological control of fish and fish products. YugNIRO oceanological studies conducted in the World Ocean from the early 1970s to the early 1990s made it possible to link the productivity and catches of exploitable species to the atmospheric circulation, changes in the climatic fields of currents, as well as to the geo- and heliophysical factors, which enabled the fishing predictions with a one-year lead time or more for the fishing areas of the Central, Southeastern and Southwestern Indian Ocean, the Patagonian Shelf, and the Indian Ocean sector of Antarctica. In the 70–90s and early 2000s, YugNIRO conducted marine geological studies facilitating fishing operations and environmental protection in the Gulf of Aden, on the bottom elevations of the tropical and subtropical parts of the Indian Ocean, in the Antarctic Shelf area, and in the Black and Azov Seas. This article lays down the current major goals and prospects of commercial oceanology.
  • Assessment of the hydrochemical state of the Azov Sea based on the data collected during the field studies in 2021–2022

    Trushkov, A. V.; Baskakova, T. E.; Kartamysheva, T. B.; Shevtsova, A. A. (2023)
    Труды АзНИИРХ / Proceedings of AzNIIRKH
    This paper presents the results of the investigation of the dynamics of the main hydrochemical characteristics of the Azov Sea in the autumn seasons of 2021–2022. Over this time range, a change in the oxygen regime of the Azov Sea has been recorded. The concentrations of ammonium, nitrate, and total nitrogen, as well as total phosphorus have a considerable impact on the level of primary production of organic matter by phytoplankton. At the present period of a low river flow, the concentration of biogenic elements is decreasing, which leads to a decrease in the primary production of organic matter.
  • Development of fodder zooplankton in the Azov Sea in the context of changing salinity and predation pressure of gelatinous macroplankton

    Mirzoyan, Zinaida; Martynyuk, Marina L.; Hrenkin, Dmitry; Afanasyev, Dmitry; Bychkova, Marina V.; Zhukova, Svetlana V.; Bondarev, Sergey V.; Piatinskii, Mikhail (2023)
    Труды АзНИИРХ / Proceedings of AzNIIRKH
    This work presents the results of long-term assessment of the influence of the Azov Sea salinity changes and predation pressure of the Black Sea gelatinous invading species—ctenophores and scyphozoans—on the development of fodder zooplankton. It is shown that the increase in the salinity of the water body leads to considerable changes in the taxonomic structure of its community. Freshwater and brackish-water species are being replaced by characteristic marine taxa from the Black Sea that are gradually becoming dominant. The number of the species immigrating from the Black Sea is growing; their range extends beyond the Southern Azov Sea. Some of them are rapidly developing far outside the area directly influenced by the Black Sea waters, including Taganrog Bay. The gelatinous predatory ctenophores and jellyfish from the Black Sea start to appear in this water body. Simultaneous development of these species escalates the consumption of fodder zooplankton by invaders. More substantial changes in taxonomic structure of the community are also observed; its development indicators and production are decreasing.
  • Accumulation and excretion of hydrocarbons in bivalve molluscs depending on the level of the oil pollution of bottom sediments

    Pavlenko, Liliya; Anokhina, Natalya S.; Barabashin, Timofey (2023)
    Труды АзНИИРХ / Proceedings of AzNIIRKH
    Benthic organisms are among the crucial components of an aquatic ecosystem, taking part in the circulation of matter and facilitating self-purification processes in water bodies. A number of researchers indicate a positive correlation between the content of toxicants in benthic organisms and their habitat, which leads to recommendations to use various species of bottom invertebrates as indicators for the pollution monitoring of aquatic ecosystems. Molluscs accumulate hydrocarbons (HC) at a higher rate than they excrete them from their body due to the absence or, at least, low development of the hydrocarbon hydroxylase detoxification system. Bivalve molluscs Mytilus galloprovincialis, a species actively involved in the filtration of the bottom water layer and coming into contact with polluted substrate, served as a subject for this investigation. This mollusc species is a valuable food source; as a part of the Azov and Black Sea zoobenthos community, it is widely spread and abundant. The experiments have been conducted on M. galloprovincialis individuals of the average length of 3–4 cm cultivated on the mussel collectors in the acceptably pure waters in the area near Bolshoy (Big) Utrish Cape. Two series of the experiments with different exposition time have been conducted: the short-term one (5 days) and a longer one (21 days). During the experiments, the bottom sediments (BS) of various pollution level were used: 0.03, 0.5, 0.6, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 g/kg petroleum products, dry weight. Following the laboratory tests, it has been found that the dynamics of accumulation and subsequent extraction of hydrocarbons from the soft tissues in mussel is dependent on the pollution level of bottom sediments.