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  • The smoltification conditions of salmon, the abundance of smolts and the dynamics of their descent in the Salaca River

    Mitans, A.P. (Baltijskij Nauchno-issledovatelskij Institut Rybnogo Khozyajstva; "Zvaigzne", 1967)
    The results of the investigations on the smoltification conditions of salmon Salmo salar and sea trout Salmo trutta and the dynamics of their natural descent to the Baltic sea are described. Also, some smolt's features were studied. Applying the method of tagging and recaptures, the total salmon stock at the age of 1-4 years in the Salaca River (Latvia) was estimated at about 8500 specimen in 1964 and 9600 individuals in 1965. Both in 1964 and 1965 the 2-year-old fish were in majority. The increase in their number in 1965 can be explained with better feeding conditions in the season before the descent to the sea, as well as with favourable smoltification and migration conditions.
  • Some regularities in the dynamics of the Baltic sea waters

    Antonov, A.E.; Lishev, M.N.; Lablaika, I.A. (Baltijskij Nauchno-issledovatelskij Institut Rybnogo Khozyajstva; "Zvaigzne", 1967)
  • Brief description of changes in the hydrological and hydrochemical conditions of the Baltic Sea over the past twenty years

    Antonov, A.E. (Baltijskij Nauchno-issledovatelskij Institut Rybnogo Khozyajstva; "Zvaigzne", 1967)
  • The ways for increasing of fish productivity of the Gulf of Riga

    Tanasijchuk, V.S.; Shurin, A.T.; Gaumiga, R.Ya.; Kairov, E.A.; Kostrichkina, E.M.; Trauberga, E.F. (Baltijskij Nauchno-issledovatelskij Institut Rybnogo Khozyajstva; "Zvaigzne", 1966)
    The aim of the measures for increasing the abundance of food-fish in the Gulf of Riga (Baltic Sea) and for amelioration of exploitation of their food reserves should be a reduction of the tension in the food base of the plankton-eating fish and an increase in the abundance of benthos-eating species. It is beneficial to suppress the abundance of planktivorous stickleback and gobies. Also, it is important to: (1) increase (by artificial reproduction) the abundance of valuable species of local ichthyofauna - vimba bream, pike-perch and whitefish; (2) improve the conditions of natural reproduction of migratory cyprinids by ameliration of their natural spawning grounds and creation of artificial spawning places in the lower reaches of rivers, first of all in the Daugava River; (3) plant young rainbow trout (it has high growth rate in brackish water) for fattening into the Gulf of Riga; (4) acclimatize valuable commercial fish species from other water bodies. As a result of the measures listed the share of food reserves utilized by valuable fish species in the Gulf of Riga would increase and the commercial productivity of the gulf would improve.
  • The ways of increasing of productivity of fish ponds in Latvia

    Okhryamkina, N.P. (Baltijskij Nauchno-issledovatelskij Institut Rybnogo Khozyajstva; "Zvaigzne", 1966)
    The basic means to achieve an increase in the fish production in ponds in Latvia are: 1) the selection work; 2) fertilization of the ponds; 3) increasing of productivity of the feeding ponds; 4) application of herbicides in the amelioration of fish ponds; 5) fighting against fish diseases; 6) increasing of productivity of lakes after their treatment with polychloropinene.
  • The state of stocks of the Baltic herring in the Gulf of Riga and the perspectives of its use for the period 1965-1967

    Lishev, M.N. (Baltijskij Nauchno-issledovatelskij Institut Rybnogo Khozyajstva. "Zvaigzne", 1966)
    The stock dynamics of the spring spawning herring Clupea harengus membras is considered. The impact of the following factors on the state and size of herring stocks in the Gulf of Riga and the Northeastern Baltic are analysed: (1) the spawning success and living conditions of larvae of spring spawning herring in the Gulf of Riga; (2) the impact of cod Gadus morhua on the herring stock, as small (young) herring is the main prey for cod in the Eastern Baltic; (3) the impact of fishery on the herring stock, especially on the spawning stock. The efficiency of measures for conservation and regulation of exploitation of the herring stock in the Gulf of Riga is estimated. The forecast on the size and condition of the spring spawning herring for the years 1965-1967 is presented.
  • On preservation and fishery for valuable fish stocks in connection with the regulation of the Daugava River

    Malikova, E.M. (Baltijskij Nauchno-issledovatelskij Institut Rybnogo Khozyajstva. "Zvaigzne", 1966)
    The possibilities for compensation of the loss caused for fishery by the construction of the hydroelectric power station on the Daugava River are discussed. The problems connected with the organisation of artificial reproduction of fish in the hatcheries are considered. The complex of the measures should broaden the possibilities for fishery for valuable species - salmon Salmo salar, vimba bream Vimba vimba, pikeperch Stizostedion lucioperca, whitefish Coregonus lavaretus and bream Abramis brama.
  • Development of the formulation and technology of a new fish culinary product "Cream cheese fish from blue catfish" enriched with iodine of kelp of the White Sea

    Novozhilova, E.A.; Shokina, Y. V.; Reshetnik, E.I.; Zakharova, L.M.; Pakusina, A.P.; Pashina, L.L.; Shkolnikov, P.N.; Tikhonova, P.А. (2024)
    Vestnik of MSTU
    Expanding the range of products based on the rational use of available fish resources is a current direction for the development of the food industry of the Russian Federation. Blue catfish, a little-used fishery item in the Northern Basin, was chosen as a raw material for the development of a fish culinary paste product. Blue catfish meat is significantly watered (up to 93 % of the total mass), as a result there are currently no technologies for deep processing of fish for food purposes. During the research, the technology of a new fish culinary product "Fish cream cheese from blue catfish, enriched with iodine from White Sea kelp" has been proposed in an assortment, and recipes have been developed, optimized in the MatLab program. The amino acid composition of blue catfish meat as well as indicators of the nutritional value of new products have been considered. The energy value of 100 g of product varies from 120 to 150 kcal, the mass fraction of protein is 8.5–11 %; fat – 9–13 %; carbohydrates – 2–2.5 %. The iodine content in a unit of consumer packaging of the product "Cream cheese fish from blue catfish with pickled seaweed" was experimentally established to be 340 mcg per 100 g; a 44 g serving of this product contains 100 % of the recommended daily intake of the micronutrient (150 mcg). The developed product "Cream cheese fish from blue catfish with pickled seaweed" can be classified as "enriched with iodine" when the amount of its daily consumption (25 g) is indicated on the consumer packaging.
  • Assessing the effectiveness of local organic materials as sorbents for oil spill response in Arctic waters

    Vasileva, Zh.V.; Trishina, A.S. (2024)
    Vestnik of MSTU
    The paper presents the results of a comparative assessment of the sorption characteristics of regional natural raw materials of organic origin: sphagnum moss (Sphаgnum palustre L.), fucus algae (Fucus vesiclousus), a composite based on them and peat in comparison with the synthetic sorbent OilSorb used in the practice of emergency rescue units to eliminate accidental oil spills. Experimental data have been obtained on potential pollutants in the Barents Sea (oil ARCO and diesel fuel) and the water capacity of sorbents for standard conditions at temperatures of 21–23 °C according to GOST 33627-2015 and in the temperature range of 10–12 °C typical for the summer period on the Kola Peninsula. The sorption characteristics of the materials under study have been evaluated in the "sea water – petroleum product" system, which simulates a real oil spill in the marine area. Tests in a model system simulating real conditions demonstrate significant changes in the efficiency of using sorption materials shown by them under standard conditions. The study has established the dynamics of the distribution of sorbed oil products and water in the materials under consideration, as well as residual oil products in the water of the "sea water – ARCO oil" and "sea water – diesel fuel" systems at different exposure times. During an exposure time of 30, 60, 90 minutes under the conditions of a system simulating a real oil spill in the water area, the material based on sphagnum moss has the most effective and time-stable indicators of sorption of oil products.
  • Macrozoobenthos in the estuary of the small salmon river of Sakhalin Island on example of the Gornaya River

    Korneev, E. S.; Labay, V. S.; Zhivoglyadova, L.A.; Berezova, O.N.; Sharlay, O.B.; Abramova, E.V.; Akhmadeeva, E.S. (2024)
    Vestnik of MSTU
    Estuaries as a connecting link between freshwater and marine ecosystems play a special role in salmon rivers. The success of adaptation of juvenile salmonids during the transition to the marine period of life depends on the conditions in estuaries. The work continues the previously started series of publications on the rivers of Sakhalin Island. Using the example of one of the small watercourses in the southeastern part of the island, the hydrological parameters and the structural organization of benthos communities in the atypical estuary have been considered. In the absence of storm surges, penetration of sea water into the water body does not occur; at high tide, water with a salinity of more than 12 psu is observed only at the mouth at the bottom; at low tide, the estuary is completely filled with water with a salinity of 0.1 psu and lower. Studies of the hydrological regime and composition of the bottom fauna were carried out in July 2022. Zoobenthos samples were taken along the longitudinal profile of the estuary at five sections (75 samples in total). Most of the estuarine reach is inhabited by species characteristic of the lower parts of the island watercourses. High environmental variability determines the formation in the estuary of young and unstable benthos communities represented by rapidly reproducing small-sized species.
  • Marine habitat mapping.

    Fraschetti, Simonetta; Strong, James; Buhl-Mortensen, Lene; Foglini, Federica; Gonçalves, Jorge M. S.; González-Irusta, José Manuel; Lillis, Helen; Lindegarth, Mats; Martin, Georg; Menot, Lenaick; et al. (European Marine Board, 2024)
    EMB Future Science Brief No. 11 ‘Marine habitat mapping’ presents science and policy needs and recommendations to advance next-generation marine habitat mapping. This document highlights current methods and future trends in the acquisition of data from the seabed and water column via remote sensing and direct, in situ techniques. It discusses combining data to produce maps using modelling approaches and presents recommendations for adopting fit-for-purpose habitat classification schemes. It also provides an overview of what has been mapped and where within the European sea-basins, highlights the need to increase the quality and resolution of marine habitat maps. It identifies critical gaps in habitat types and geographic extent, including the coastal areas, the deep sea, Natura 2000 sites and other Marine Protected Areas across all regional seas. Finally, it describes the need to improve the assessment and communication of uncertainty and confidence in maps, and to make maps more easily accessible to a variety of stakeholders to increase their value for end-users and to the public for Ocean literacy.
  • Greater flamingos as winged flagship species at the boundaries of Circeo Man and Biosphere Reserve

    Gaglioti, Martina (Self-published, 2024)
    The greater flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus, Pallas 1811) is a typical migratory Mediterranean species, even if considered nesting in the area only from few years to date, with a first documentation of a nesting event in Italy in 1993 (Schenk et al., 1995; Béchet et al., 2009). The typical coloring pattern due to the feeding strategy adopted by these migrating birds make the species particularly interesting from the wider audience. It is what was observed in the nearby of the transitional ecosystems associated to the brackish water of Caprolace Lake. This place is not so crowded normally, but due to the presence of many photographers and curious observers the presence of the pinkish colony turned rapidly the lake shores into a meeting point for many curious eyes attracted from this natural astonishing event. On 2nd February is normally celebrated the World Wetland Day and this contribution is published accordingly, in order to celebrate somehow these field observations occurred in the nearby of this important date, considered as the anniversary of the adoption of the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, signed in Ramsar on 2 February 1971.
  • Application of the "electronic nose" for evaluating volatile compounds of semi-finished small fish

    Alloyarova, Yuliya V. (2023)
    Vestnik of MSTU
    The production of canned food is one of the dynamically developing segments of the fishing industry. An instrumental assessment of the composition of highly volatile fractions (aromas) of smoked semi-finished capelin products sent for the production of canned food has been carried out using a MAG 8 odor analyzer in the equilibrium gas phase above the samples. To reliably establish differences in the composition of highly volatile compounds, the method of preliminary concentration of components in a sampler has been used. After saturation of the free space above the sample, the signals increased from 2.5 to 3 times when the sensors were loaded with the equilibrium gas phase. However, no fundamental differences in the nature of the influence of different methods of processing semi-finished capelin products have been established. Under native (natural) conditions for the formation of the odor of capelin samples and their preliminary concentration in the equilibrium gas phase, the qualitative and quantitative compositions of the odor differ, but the tendency remains for a higher content of compounds in the sample treated with smoke gel compared to frozen capelin and the sample treated with a smoke-air mixture. For saturated vapors, it has been established that according to 3 parameters (contributions to the sorption of sensors 1, 3, 8), samples treated with a smoke-air mixture and smoke gel have a similar composition (unlike frozen capelin). Sensors 5, 6 and 7 do not distinguish the smell of all samples, i.e. they react to volatile compounds of capelin. Sensor 4 reflects the proximity of the moisture indicators of frozen capelin and capelin treated with smoking gel. As a result of the correlation analysis, the correspondence of the obtained chemical samples has been established, including a greater influence on the composition of highly volatile fractions (aroma) when using a smoke-air mixture compared to using a smoking gel.
  • Neural networks as a tool for improving the mathematical model of ship motion

    Pashentsev, S. V. (2023)
    Vestnik of MSTU
    Using neural networks opens up great opportunities for studying mathematical models of ship motion. Correction by a network of identified parameters of the selected model should be as adequate as possible to the results of standard full-scale tests defined by the IMO Resolution N 137 of 2002. A mathematical model in displacements is considered, containing 16 parameters that determine the hydrodynamic forces acting on the ship's hull and steering gear, and is the source of a data set for training the network by randomly varying the parameters and subsequent computer testing. The standard maneuver is a steady-state circulation with fixation of the maneuvering elements: diameter, linear velocity, drift angle and angular velocity of rotation. Improving the quality of the model has consisted of changing its parameters and minimizing the mean square errors of the values of the maneuvering elements obtained during testing. For these purposes, a neural network with 16 inputs (model parameters) and four outputs (maneuvering elements for steady-state circulation) has been built. The data set for training the network was obtained using a program developed by the authors and intended for calculating parameters and conducting maneuver tests. A tanker with a displacement of 30,000 tons was chosen as a test object. Various options for network architecture and tools for working with it have been considered; the Statistica Neural Nets (SNN) software environment and the ANN package in the SciLab environment have been used. Comparative assessments of the results of working with these tools have been given.
  • Results of a statistical study of types of single-phase faults in low-voltage ship electrical networks

    Kazhekin, Ilya E.; Kharitonov, Maxim S. (2023)
    Vestnik of MSTU
    The increase in the power supply of ships is manifested in growth of ship power plants' capacity, the total length of cable lines, and the number of electrified mechanisms. With the development of marine technology, the severity of the consequences of damage to ship electrical equipment and the costs of its maintenance and repair increase. The search for ways to improve the reliability and safety of electrical equipment should be based on design and technological solutions at the stages of its development and production, as well as an analysis of various factors that may appear during the operation of marine equipment and affect the condition of ship electrical systems. During studying these factors, it has been revealed that one of the common types of damage to electrical equipment of marine equipment is single-phase short circuits, the causes of which are varied. Preventing short circuits is labour intensive and in some cases impracticable. However, understanding the characteristics of this type of damage to low-voltage equipment is necessary to improve the reliability and safety of ship electrical systems. The conducted research is based on a survey of ship electrical mechanics. The results of the surveys have made it possible to analyze the frequency of occurrence of single-phase insulation faults, the duration of their existence, to identify the most likely places of occurrence of short circuits and equipment that is more susceptible to such damage compared to other elements of the electrical power system.
  • Comparative analysis of the production potential of the water bodies subjected to varying rates of fishing exploitation

    GENNADY, KARNAUKHOV (2023)
    Труды АзНИИРХ / Proceedings of AzNIIRKH
    The hydrochemical characterization of the Lysyy (Bold) Liman Lake and Volchy Vorota (Wolf Gates) Reservoir is given. The data on its food resources and current ichthyofauna composition are given. Based on the analysis of the exploitable stock estimates and the data from the actual catches, commercial productivity of the indicated water bodies has been compared in the context of the attempted introduction of herbivorous fish species in one of them and natural development of the ichthyofauna in the other one.
  • Prospects for the use of the Chelbas Limans in the reproduction of semi-anadromous fish species

    Vishnevskiy, S. L.; Petrashov, V. I.; Rudakova, N. A.; Matveeva, E. I. (2023)
    Труды АзНИИРХ / Proceedings of AzNIIRKH
    For the first time since 1970s, a comparative analysis of the species composition of the commercial ichthyofauna in the Chelbas Limans has been conducted based on long-term surveys. The volumes of natural production of juveniles of semi-anadromous fish species (zander and roach) are presented with the main environmental reasons (water regime and overgrowth) that have influenced the structural transformaton of the ichthyocenoses of the Chelbas Limans over the last half-century. The prospects for using the limans for reproduction of semi-anadromous fish species are shown.
  • Microsporidiosis of flatfishes caused by Tetramicra brevifilum

    Maltsev, V. N. (2023)
    Труды АзНИИРХ / Proceedings of AzNIIRKH
    This article summarizes existing scientific data on microsporidiosis of flatfishes caused by Tetramicra brevifilum. This disease has not yet been recorded in the Azov and Black Seas, but it is found in the adjacent Mediterranean region and the European Atlantic, where it is one of the most prevalent turbot diseases in the context of the commercial cultivation of this fish species. Scientific information on the pathogen, patterns of the disease progression, its geographical distribution, as well as clinical, pathological, epizootic and other features of invasion is given. The danger of the microsporidia T. brevifilum for the Azov and Black Sea flatfishes results from their potential susceptibility to this disease, as well as the possibility of the introduction of this pathogen into the Black Sea due to climate warming, ornamental fish keeping, natural migration of Mediterranean fish species and transportation of stocking material (eggs, juveniles, breeders) for marine cultivation facilities. Methodological approaches to the diagnosis of this disease are described.
  • Scientific peer-reviewed journal “Aquatic Bioresources & Environment” celebrates its fifth anniversary

    Bragina, Tatyana; Mikhaylyuk, Ekaterina A.; Reshitko, Elena E.; Savchuk, Elena A. (2023)
    Труды АзНИИРХ / Proceedings of AzNIIRKH
    In 2023, the scientific peer-reviewed journal “Aquatic Bioresources & Environment” celebrates its first major birthday: 5 years since its first publication. Since 2021, the journal has been included in the List of peer-reviewed scientific publications, in which the main scientific results of dissertations for the degree of Candidate of Science and for the degree of Doctor of Science should be published (List of the Higher Attestation Commission), and is indexed in the Russian Science Citation Index (RSCI); its abstracts are submitted to the International Information System for Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA). Full texts of the articles are available in open access at the official website of the journal and the Scientific Electronic Library e-library.ru (eLIBRARY), as well as on other web platforms accessible through search engines. All articles are assigned with Digital Object Identifiers (DOI), which, in turn, are registered by the international agency Crossref. In 2023, the leading journals of the Russian Federation go through the process of verification and ranking. At present, the journal is included into the category K2 in the List of the Higher Attestation Commission and has major achievements among the Russian scientific periodical publications.
  • Development of processing technology for the preserves derived from the barrel jellyfish Rhizostoma pulmo (Macri, 1778)

    Esina, Lyubov; Belyakova, Irina A. (2023)
    Труды АзНИИРХ / Proceedings of AzNIIRKH
    Production of preserves is being considered as a possible option for the barrel jellyfish Rhizostoma pulmo processing. This work presents the results of experimental studies on production of the preserves derived from the jellyfish that underwent salting and treatment with the tanning substances extracted from oak bark and green tea leaves. It has been noted that the organoleptic characteristics of the preserves in satay sauce and various spicy filling media are appealing for consumption. The investigated samples of the preserves, in terms of the mass percentages of the main product (jellyfish) and cooking salt, met the requirements of TR EAEU 040/2016. Based on the preliminary assessment, the shelf life of the preserves can last 2 months at the temperature 4±2 °С.

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