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Recent Submissions

  • Dumping ground and its impact on distribution of pollutants in the Kerch pre-strait zone of the Black Sea

    Petrenko, O.A.; Sebakh, L.K.; Pankratova, T.M.; Avdeeva, T.M.; Popova, T.V.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1993)
    The greatest amount of wastes discharged into the sea in order to bury them consists of grounds in the process of dredging. An attempt is made to assess impact of dumping of dredging wastes from the Kerch Marine Merchant Port (Ukraine) on changes in hydrochemical regime of the pre-strait zone of the Black Sea against the background of established regime of discharge. For these purposes two complex ecological surveys were carried out in November 1991 (before the beginning of dredging operations) and in March 1992 (after its completing). As a result, the content of mercury in the grounds of the central part of the dump increased from 0.05 to 0.10 mcg/g of dry matter. However, maximum concentrations of this highly toxic element are with the range of the underwater dump. High lead concentrations in bottom sediments of the area of deep water dumps were proved both by the results of background survey (more than 25.0 mcg/g of dry matter in the north-western part of the area) and data obtained after completing of dumping (up to 37.7 mcg/g of dry matter). Summary content of oil products in the process of dumping increased not only in the surface layer of bottom sediments in the area of underwater dumps but in the water of the near-bottom horizon. In bottom sediments the mean concentration of summary oil products in the area of dump of grounds increased 2.3 times. Oil carbohydrates and heavy metals in the grounds of dredging, depositing in bottom sediments, create a situation of chronic contamination of waters and bottom sediments in the area under examination and are a source of secondary contamination of the near-bottom water layer.
  • Monitoring of contamination of the north-western shelf of the Black Sea in the zone of exploration of the promising gas deposits

    Pankratova, T.M.; Sebakh, L.K.; Panov, B.N.; Avdeeva, T.M.; Petrenko, O.A.; Popova, T.V.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1993)
    The following tasks were carried out: 1) analysis of the level of contamination in the background areas of the north-western shelf of the Black Sea (Ukraine) beyond explorated deposits of gas and gas condensate; 2) complex ecological studies of the ecosystem state on the north-western shelf with regard of predominant shifts of water masses; 3) assessment of the level of impact of the objects of the industrial enterprise 'Chernomorneftegas' on the water environment and bottom sediments in the areas of location of marine stationary platforms (MSP). Monitoring of contamination of water and bottom sediments of the area under study was carried out by following indices: heavy metals (mercury, copper, lead, cadmium, chromium) and oil components (volatile and non-volatile carbohydrates, resins and asphaltens). Bottom sediments of the north-western shelf of the Black Sea are most polluted with lead, concentrations of which exceeded geochemical background all over there. Negative impact of drilling on the components of the ecosystem reveal itself to the greatest extent directly near the wells or southward that agree well with data on distribution of bottom biocenoses. In the zone of location of marine stationary platforms on the north-western shelf increased content (in comparison with background values) of oil components was observed both in the surface and near-bottom layers with predominance of non-volatile carbohydrates in the fractional composition that is a feature of secondary contamination. Summary content of oil products in bottom sediments of Odessa Bay and adjacent area of the shelf, near-Danube region is compatible with values characteristic with most polluted stations in the zone of location of MSP. In the component composition, resins and asphaltens are prevalent (up to 1.94 mg/g of dry matter). In bottom sediments of the zone of location of MSP summary content of oil products varies in the wide range, from 0.063 to 2.849 mg/g of dry matter.
  • The present state of the hydrogen sulphide layer in the Black Sea

    Bryantsev, V.A.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1993)
    Anthropogenic withdrawal of the river inflow, and deliberately determined critical changes in the ecosystems of the Aral, Caspian and Azov Seas, have had an impact on the state of hydrostructure of the Black Sea. Summer-autumn hydrogen sulphide contamination of near-bottom waters intensified on the north-western shelf of the Black Sea, salinity in the layers from 50 down to 300 m increased statistically considerably, and hydrochemical structure of the sea and even its heat state underwent changes (Bryantsev, et al., 1991). In the period from 1954 to 1983 a trend towards raise of the basic picnocline for 40-60 m and the upper border of the hydrogen sulphide layer connected with it. The last considerable raise of the level of the hydrogen sulphide waters was observed in 1983 when reduction of natural inflow and maximum irretrievable water consumption were recorded simultaneously for all the period under study. Signs of improvement of ecological situation of the Black Sea, for instance, YugNIRO surveys show reduction in intensity of the winter-killing phenomena on the north-western shelf.
  • Information support of fishery resources studies

    Korshunova, G.P.; Pronenko, S.M.; Trotsenko, B.G.; Ursatieva, G.I.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1993)
    Databases available in YugNIRO reflect main trends of resource studies and incorporate: 1) commercial biological and oceanographic data obtained as a result of expeditional studies in the Indian and Southern Oceans and in the Black Sea and kept in the Data Bank of the Information System of Subscribers' Archives (ISAA) as unified forms of collection and record of data; 2) operative data from fisheries as daily radioreports (system RIF) and daily radioreports (system OCEAN) aggregated into monthly arrays on magnetic tapes; 3) temporal series characterizing state of ecosystem obtained as a result of calculations and analysis; 4) hydrometeorological information for the areas of the Indian and Southern Oceans and for the Black Sea. Data on availability of information on machine carriers are given in the table.
  • Assessment of filtration ability of fouling organisms on marine stationary stations in the Black Sea and their role in ecosystem

    Zolotarev, P.N.; Litvinenko, N.M.; Rubinshtein, I.G.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1993)
    In order to reveal the role of fouling organisms of marine stationary platforms (MSP), situated in the North Western shelf of the Black Sea (Ukraine) used by industrial enterprise 'Chernomorneftegas' for gas extraction on the ecosystem of water area, YugNIRO expedition carried out works for assessment of their filtration ability and the role in changing of aggregate state of suspended in water elements in May 1992. The studies demonstrated that biocenosis of fouling organisms on marine stationary platforms consisted of a Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis), mytilaster (Mytilaster lineatus), cirripedia (Balanus improvisus), ascidian (Ciona intestinalis), Gammaridae, and sponges. Mussels were located in the examined horizons while all the other species were found only in the upper 15-meter layer. All the fouling organisms (except Gammaridae) are filtrators providing in the process of vital activity change in the suspension aggregate state and to a greater extent speeding up the process of its sedimentation. Along with this, a share of mussels in the total biomass of community was highest (99.99%). In this connection in estimations of filtration ability of fouling organisms of marine stationary stations only filtration by mussels was taken into account. According to average long-term data concentration of suspended organic matter in the north-western Black Sea is about 1.5 mg/l, and that of phytoplankton - 300 mg/l. The mussels living on the examined marine stationary platforms are able to bind and sediment up to 3250 t of suspension per year. It is known that in the process of mussels' filtration activity oil is bound by them and sediment to the bottom in faeces and pseudofaeces. With a concentration of oil products at a level of 0.022 mg/l mussels from the four examined MSP are able to bind up to 39.8 t of this pollutant during one year.
  • Statistical analysis of long-term variations of the oceanographic characteristics (S, O2, P, Si, H2S) of the Black Sea

    Kovalchuk, L.A.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1993)
    Широкое распространение в популярной и специальной литературе получило мнение о том, что в результате изменений речного стока произошло опреснение поверхностных (0-50 м) и осолонение промежуточных (75-300 м) горизонтов, с чем связывают изменения концентраций биогенных элементов и предполагаемый подъём верхней границы сероводородной зоны. Наша цель — показать, что статистически значимых внутривековых изменений гидроструктуры глубоководной части моря не происходит, а утверждения о трансформации моря основаны преимущественно на расчётах трендов, что принципиально неверно, т. к. коэффициент регрессии (тренда) не является значимым на любом отрезке временного ряда и, к тому же, при расчёте трендов не учитываются погрешности оценок интегральных характеристик. Методическая основа работы состоит в проверке нулевой гипотезы о принадлежности временных выборок интегральной океанографической характеристики одной и той же генеральной совокупности. Исходной информацией послужили материалы наблюдений АзЧерНИРО по стандартной схеме станций.
  • Complex analysis of water structure and potential productivity of 'CompASSP'

    Korshunova, G.P.; Kochergin, A.T.; Trotsenko, B.G.; Yakovlev, V.N.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1993)
    Details are given of a computer program for an IBM/PC-386 in MS-DOS environment to estimate the degree of impact of hydrophysical, hydrodynamic and biochemical processes on variability of fields of chemical elements and estimate intensity of producing of primary organic matter within the required area. Software consists of three levels: dialogue support, information provision and executable modules. Arrangement of the model for a certain area is carried out with input of the corresponding coefficients from literature sources or obtained by calculations. As manager and re-arranger of the system a command file is used via which interaction of the executable modules with information block takes place: 1. formation of the initial data for the required NSM-degree squares; 2. calculation of 3-dimensional circulation; 3. calculation of autocorrelative functions of oceanological fields in required directions, typical spatial scale and coefficients of diffusion exchange; 4. calculation of balance components; 5. mapping of the components of currents' speed, balance components and specific primary production on the required standard horizons. The developed complex of the programmes may be successfully applied in various studies of the World Ocean, including prognostic ones and for training purposes.
  • Main results of the YugNIRO complex research in the Azov and Black Seas Basin and the World Ocean.

    Yakovlev, V.N.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1993)
    Main results of the fishery expeditions, conducted in the Azov Sea under the YugNIRO initiative, are given. Data on biological resources, their availability for the fishery fleet of Ukraine in various areas of the World Ocean are revealed. Stock assessment of the Antarctic krill is made for the Antarctic Atlantic. Fish catch predictions for the Black Sea commercial species are made. Prospects of the new processing methods for the food products from mussels are analyzed.
  • Assessment of distribution and migration ways of heavy metals in the Karkinitsky Bay ecosystem

    Pankratova, T.M.; Sebakh, L.K.; Finkelstein, M.S.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1994)
    In 1989-1993, YugNIRO carried out investigations of the impact of undersea exploratory drilling on the ecosystem of Karkinit Bay, Crimea (Ukraine) and the adjacent shelf areas of the north-western Black Sea. Karkinit Bay and adjacent shelf zone of the Black Sea are home for wintering aggregations of sturgeons, feeding area for juvenile and adult mullets, a permanent residence for juvenile turbot, whiting, sprat. In the southern part of Karkinit Bay dense (up to 1100 g/m super(2)) mussel beds still exist, which has age composition characteristic for a virgin population. All stages of exploration on the gas bearing formation were controlled: before and during the building of the marine stationary platform, exploratory drilling and shut-in storage period, and upon completion of the assessment of the particular gas resource. During the exploratory drilling period, the levels of heavy metals (copper, lead, nickel, and cadmium) in the seabed sediments were below the maximum permissible concentrations (MPC), while the levels of mercury and chromium surpassed MPCs at individual stations by 2 and 27 times (0.17 and 27.8 mg/l, respectively). Following completion of the exploratory drilling, mercury concentrations varied from 0.14 to 0.23 mg/l and everywhere exceeded MPCs as a result of a secondary contamination of water; chromium levels dropped and varied within MPC, reaching 1.9 MPC or 1.9 mg/l at individual stations. In the seabed sediments within the region of the Marine Stationary platform, accumulation of copper, lead, and chromium was observed; during the final drilling stage, their average concentrations increased to 14.4 (copper), 6.9 (lead), 14.6 (chromium) mg/g dry weight. The highest concentrations of these metals surpassed geochemical background by factors of 4-5, 62, and 8, respectively. The spatial distribution of toxic metals with a radius of 0.1-mile distance from the exploratory well. Following completion of the exploratory drilling and related operations, a stabilisation of the ecosystem and substantial decrease in the levels of toxic metals both in the water and in the sediment upper layer were recorded.
  • Concept of organization of sub-system 'Marine living resources'.

    Trotsenko, B.G.; Yakovlev, V.N.; Kokoz, L.M.; Pronenko, S.M.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1994)
    At present, Ukraine lacks a unified information storage and retrieval system to render informational support to marine and oceanic research and management studies. There is an urgent need for setting up a State oceanological information system (SOIS) and for organising information exchange; there is also a need for legal regulation of information exchange between information holders both at the national and international levels. A network of national specialised data centres whose creation is now underway in such fields as oceanography, living marine resources, non-living resources and marine pollution, will form the basis for SOIS. The 'Marine Living Resources' information subsystem will ensure the automatic solution, at the national level of the following main tasks: 1) integrated research on the state of bioresources and their habitats in the World Ocean; 2) real-time monitoring of the state of marine environment and marine living resources, at first in the Azov-Black Sea region and later on throughout the World Ocean; 3) interrelated continuous forecasting (prognostic monitoring) of both marine environment and marine living resources; 4) establishment and management of regional databases on marine living resources; 5) model development at ecosystem level; 6) modernisation and adaptation of the existing functional problems on information processing and analysis; 7) analysis of marine living resources exploitation levels; 8) development of optimal exploitation strategy for various regions of the World Ocean (managing stocks in a sustainable manner and conserving stability of biocenoses); 9) development of ecological disaster warning system for individual region threatened by natural degradation and anthropogenic pressure; 10) elaboration of measures on conservation and reproduction of bioresources; 11) elaboration of tactics and strategy of Ukraine's fishery development. Technical framework is proposed basing on local area computer networks, and communication channels that link Datacentres into the SOIS.
  • Mechanization of mussel processing

    Borisov, L.A.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1994)
    A mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis processing line was developed in 1993, incorporating the equipment to produce both protein-carbohydrate concentrate and cooked mussel meat. The processing line incorporates the following equipment, developed and made in YugNIRO: washing machine, internal valve fluid remover, mussel crusher, fermenter, vacuum evaporator (as a heat carrier glycerine is used), take-away and delivery conveyors, centrifuge, coolers, washers, sterilisers, mussel container turn-over device, feed hopper, dosing feed bin, basket loading and unloading device. The productive capacity of the line is 1 t/hour.
  • Updated technology of output of new types of products from fish and non-fish species of water origin

    Yakovleva, Z.A.; Zubchenko, D.G.; Dosycheva, I.V.; Busova, A.I.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1994)
    Recent YugNIRO studies on fish, mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis, and the sea snail Rapana thomasiana processing revealed that bouillons originating in the processing of these raw animal materials could be used as an additional source for food production. New seafoods were developed in 1992, based on concentrated by evaporation bouillons: dried and roasted cracker, mussel-based and fish-based cream-sauces, preserves with a white-pink sauce which stems from cream-sauces. Three kinds of mussel meat preserves have been developed with a mayonnaise-type cream-sauce: 'Mussel with white cream-sauce', 'Mussel with white-pink cream-sauce', 'Mussel with mustard cream-sauce'. Improved technology of these new foods from fish, mussel and rapana considerably simplifies the processing.
  • Characteristic of bacterial communities associated with mollusc biodeposits

    Puchenkova, S.G.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1994)
    Quantitative and qualitative composition of the bacterioflora of biosediments produced by mussels and oysters were studied in the southern Kerch Strait, area of potential experimental and commercial culture of molluscs. Sampling was made from May to October 1993. A total of 45 various groups of microorganisms were determined and 50 pure bacterial cultures were isolated. On the basis of research into morphological, tinctorial, cultural and physiological and biochemical properties of the isolated strains, they were identified to species or genus level. Of 22 isolated strains of the enteric bacilli group, Escherichia coli accounted for 9.1%, Enterobacter agglomerans, 50%, Citrobacter freundii, 27.3%, C. diversus, 9.1%, C. amalonaticus 4.5%. Among enterococci, mainly Enterococcus faecium were determined, E. faecalis accounting for from 8 to 25% of the enterococci group. Bacteria of the genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Vibrio, and a proteolytic biovariety of enterococcus were most active hydrolase producers. Among aerobic bacteria, Bacillus cereus were identified; anaerobic bacteria were represented mainly by Clostridium perfringens.
  • Mussel growth in the Donuzlav Lake

    Vizhevsky, V.I.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1994)
    Lake Donuzlav (Crimea, Ukraine) is a closed narrow arm of the Black Sea 27 km long located in the southwestern Kerch Peninsula. Its hydrologicul regime differs in many respects from the adjacent coastal areas, thus determining the peculiarities of the local mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis population and culture techniques. The triennial investigations showed annual recurrence of the main peculiarities of mussel growth by seasons, governed primarily by the temperature factor. The most intensive linear and weight growth rate in smaller groups occurred in April-May, whereas in seniors they were shifted to June-July. Mussel growth in Lake Donuzlav is primarily governed by the water temperature regime and also by the reproductive activity of the molluscs; the growth pattern can be described as a sequence of the annually recurrent cyclic periods of active growth, stunted growth, and termination of growth. Mussel growth rate in Lake Donuzlav is at its highest in the temperature range of 14 to 20 degree C; the lower temperature limit of growth is 5 degree C, the upper temperature limit is 25 degree C, which is 2 degree C higher than that in the Kerch Strait. During gonad maturation period the linear growth rate sharply slows down. Highest rates of linear and weight growth in mussels are observed at the early ontogenetic stages; they gradually slow down with age, whereas the body mass growth can even increase with age.
  • Some peculiarities in early ontogenesis in haarder from spawning stocks and natural populations

    Bulli, L.I.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1994)
    Artificial reproduction of the haarder (Mugil soiuy) in experimental farm at Budaki (Odessa region, Ukraine) during 1988-1989 and 1993 are described. Batches of ovulated and developing eggs from brood stocks and natural populations were investigated with regard to such indices as egg and fat drop diameters, egg moisture content, egg wet and dry masses, buoyancy, and development in water of various salinity. The haarder eggs were fertilisable in a fairly wide range of salinity, from 3-5 to 45 promille, but no fertilisation was possible in fresh water. At early cleavage stages, there was no essential variation in the percentage of embryos developing in waters of different salinity, it was 60-82% on an average. But already at the fine-cellular morule stage, the development of eggs in batches obtained from the brood-stock fish partially ceased in salinity below 20 or above 35 promille. Both with the salinity decrease from 20 to 5 promille and with its increase from 30 to 45 promille, the embryonic mortality increased at all stages of the embryonic development. The hatching of eggs was observed to occur only in salinity below 40 promille, and also above that corresponding to the threshold buoyancy which is different for every batch of eggs. The death of embryos developing on the pool bottom and stuck in the surface water film in 40-50 promille salinity is apparently caused by the failure to get oxygen. The state of suspension in the seawater is of crucial importance for normal development of the haarder eggs. The haarder eggs from natural spawners were larger in size and had high buoyancy; the latter due to the size of the fat drop and also due to the biochemical composition of lipids. There is no doubt that these differences are mainly due to the diet of fish from the brood-stock, grown on artificial feeds; the haarder is detrivorous in the wild.
  • High resolution in formation receiving station

    Chernyshov, I.V.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1994)
    A scheme of the high resolution information receiving station is developed aiming at receiving NOAA information from the AES (Atrificial Earth Satellite) in the HRPT regime. Software development for various ways of data processing is recommended. Stages of the information input are described.
  • Solution of the sum about the length of the curve of search for concentrations in the given area

    Kokoz, L.M.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1994)
    There were obtained formulas for assessment of probability of crossing of sub-sphere occupied by a commercial concentration of fishing target with curve of search, L as well as formulas for calculation of mathematical expectation of search route length. These results allow to calculate probability of fishing spot determination for each area and each hypothesis about size of fishing spot, including calculation of route length, ensuring sub-sphere finding if the hypothesis about its size is true.
  • Some aspects of modelling subject area of forecasting database

    Kokoz, L.M.; Sedelkina, T.G.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1994)
    Approaches of the creation of the subject sphere information model during databases developments are examined. The application of the 'essence' approach to the exposure of the structure and interaction for all the objects in the certain subject sphere is proposed. The ways of solving PC user problems while creating the system of research information support are discussed. Common methodology of the subject spheres description irrespective of their nature is emphasised. Triple category system ('object', 'property', and 'relation') is used to describe the subject sphere as a symbol model for fishery research. The approach suggested is the tool of creating accessible for every user and easily updated databases.
  • Experience of intensive rearing of micro-alga Spirulina platensis

    Gnatchenko, L.G.; Pisarevskaya, I.I.; Ivanyuta, A.P.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1994)
    Experiments of cultivation of micro-alga spirulina (Spirulins platencis) in YugNIRO, Kerch, Ukraine are described. Alga culture from Institute of Fisheries, (Burgas, Bulgaria) were used. The cultivation was carried out from May to October 1992 and 1993 in open plastic tanks with water surface from 1.2 m super(2) to 4m super(2). Aeration and mineral fertilisers were applied. Both in greenhouse and outdoor culture, temperature and intensity of illumination are major factors controlling the productivity of Spirulina. Productivity of Spirulina grown under different greenhouse conditions may be on the order of 0.1-0.3 g/dm super(3). In outdoor culture of Spirulina the highest growth of its biomass was recorded from a plastic pool 3.2 m super(2) in area, with 25 cm culture medium thickness. At temperatures below optimal for this species (16-27 degree C) the harvest over four days of cultivation was 15 g /m super(2). Over 15 days of continuous Spirulina culture in a greenhouse, the yield was, on an average, 5 g/m super(2) from an area of 20 m super(2). From plastic pools in the southern and western sides of the greenhouse the yield was up to 25 g/m super(2). In 1993, the productivity of this Spirulina species under greenhouse conditions ranged from 8.7 to 33.0 g/m super(2), with a mean value of 19.2 g /m super(2).
  • On the problem of feeding migration piscicultural farm at the Tobechik Lake

    Solodovnikov, A.A.; Semik, A.M.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1994)
    Some experience in using Lake Tobechik (Crimea, Ukraine) as a fish rearing and feeding ground is described. Lake Tobechik is the biggest coastal lagoon in the southeastern Kerch Peninsula of Crimea, with an area of 18.7 km super(2), separated from the sea by a barrier beach of sand 100 m wide. An average depth of water is 0.1 m with a maximum depth of 0.5 m. Water surface is considerably reduced in summer due to intensive evaporation. The water level in the lagoon is somewhat below sea level. The isolation from the sea lead to hyperhalinity of the lake, the salinity varying from 50 to 98-100 promille. The channel, 2.2 m deep was dug through the barrier beach into the lagoon in 1956. The depth of water increased to 1-1.5 m, and salinity decreased to 24-30 promille. Mullets (Mugil spp.) and horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus) juveniles invaded the lagoon. The maximum annual yield attained was 44.4 kg/ha. The low productivity of marine fish farming in Lake Tobechik resulted from the following causes: 1) low level of water exchange with the sea; 2) lack of external food supply, there was no fish feeding by man; 3) considerable losses of uncaught fish from exposure to low temperatures. Taking into account the previous experience in using Lake Tobechik as a fish rearing and feeding ground, a following conclusion was made: 1) to connect again the lagoon with the sea by a channel; 2) to built sluices in order to prevent escape of fish and regulate water level; 3) deepening the lakebed, providing wintering pits and build feeding platforms all around the lagoon; 4) equipping fishing places for drag seining. The production of fish will largely depend on rational feeding regime, the quantity and quality of artificial food.

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