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  • The status of Kenya Fisheries: Towards sustainability exploitation of fisheries resources for food security and economic development.

    Kimani, E.; Okemwa, G.; Aura, C. (Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute (KMFRI)Mombasa, Kenya, 2018)
    The information presented in this book is structured in a simple way that can be useful to fisheries students, scientists, managers, the fishing industry, fish traders, consumers and the general public. The book is structured into two technical chapters (1 and 2) that provide an overview of the current status of marine and freshwater fisheries respectively. An overview that provides the geographical and physical setting of the marine and freshwater bodies is provided at the beginning of each of the chapters. Chapter 3 examines the legal and policy frameworks that govern the fisheries sector and management developments that have taken place, particularly the implications of the new dispensation of the new Constitution in 2010. Chapter 4 concludes with a brief overview of the value of fisheries and the contribution of the sector to national economic development, National GDP, employment and food security.
  • Coastal Aquaculture Potential of East Africa

    Bwathondi, P.O.; Institute of Marine Sciences (1981)
    Studies on the aquaculture potential of East African coast has been given. Due to the large expanse of mangrove areas in the region, it has been suggested that the culture of penaeid prawns, particularly Penaeus indicus (H. Milne Edwards), P. monodon (Fabricius), P.semisulcatus (De Haan) and Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius) be attempted in the mangrove areas and creeks. Such rearing experiments should be run concurrently with experiments involving the breeding of the prawns in the laboratory. Experiments carried out on the rearing of mollusks show that the region does not support any appreciable growth of oysters, particularly the commercial species. The dominant genera in the region are Ostrea and Crassostrea. The former genus has a slow growth rate and little meat yield. Experiments are underway to determine the aquaculture potential of mussels. Fish culture, particularly the culture of rabbitfish Siganus spp. has a promising future in the region. Rearing experiments carried out at the Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar, have indicated that the fish can be cultured to maturity size of 23.4 cm total length within about 8-9 months. The growth rate of this fish has also been determined by the author. Other fish which have a promising aquaculture potential in the region are milkfish Chanos spp; and Epinephelus spp. The study of seaweeds of Tanzania has reached an advanced stage. Already researches are underway to open seaweed farms both in Zanzibar and Pemba Islands and along the coast of Tanzania Mainland. One of the most valuable seaweeds which has attracted great attention in the region is Eucheuma spp.
  • Impact of Human Physical Disturbance on Mangrove Forest Structure at the Gazi Bay, Kenya

    Kihia, C.M. (2014)
    Human physical disturbance is prevalent in mangrove forests of the Western Indian Ocean. This study investigated the impact of human physical disturbance on the structure of mangrove forests by comparing forest attributes such as density, taxon richness, stem diameter and tree height between disturbed and relatively undisturbed sites. Physical disturbance was evaluated through tree harvesting intensity, roads and footpaths and other human activities, such as digging for fish bait at the sites. Disturbed sites recorded significantly (ANOVA, P<0.001) higher tree cutting intensity than comparable undisturbed sites, corresponding to lower forest complexity and changes in dominant tree species. Disturbance increased prevalence of Avicennia marina and Ceriops tagal species at the landward margin of disturbed sites. Disturbed sites also recorded significantly lower abundance of harvestable trees and stand volume (223 stem.ha-1, 14.56 m3 .ha-1, respectively) than undisturbed sites (288 stem.ha-1, 19.69 m3 .ha-1, respectively). In addition, accessible sites recorded lower marketable trees, heights, pole size classes (mazio 4-6cm, boriti >10cm) and species (Rhizophora and Bruguiera), being dominated by juvenile and stunted Ceriops and Avicennia. These results indicate that overexploitation of mangrove forests affects the species composition and structural complexity of the forest and hence may impair forest functioning and regeneration and subsequently, sustainable exploitation. Thus, human physical disturbance leads to exponential decline in forest complexity and requires management intervention.
  • Fisheries in the Southwest Indian Ocean: Trends and Governance Challenges

    Kimani, E.N.; Okemwa, G.M.; Kazungu, J.M.; Laipson, E.; Pandya, A. (The Henry L. Stimson CenterWashington DC, 2009)
    This assessment presents an overview of the current and prospective fisheries in the context of other transnational issues that affect the Southwest Indian Ocean (SWIO) region. It also examines key governance challenges, as well as trade-offs that can be made in the short and long term to meet the needs and interests of local fisher communities, national governments, and the international trade mechanisms that shape the region’s maritime policies. Finally, it reviews the work of regional and global fishery organizations in managing the IO fisheries.
  • Structure and Biomass Accumulation of Natural Mangrove Forest at Gazi Bay, Kenya.

    Githaiga, Michael Njoroge (Kenyatta University, 2013)
    Mangroves occupy only 0.4% of forested areas globally but are among the most productive ecosystems on earth. They account for about 11% of the total input of terrestrial carbon into the oceans. The above ground carbon stock in mangroves in some parts of the World has been estimated to be as high as 8 kg C m-2; with a similar amount reported for below ground components. Although a lot of research has been done on estimates of mangrove biomass in Kenya, there is no information on biomass accumulation across the zones. The present study aimed at determining the forest structure and estimating above and below ground biomass accumulation in Gazi Bay mangrove forest. Forest structure was determined in the western, middle and eastern forest blocks of the Gazi Bay mangrove forest while biomass accumulation studies were done in the western forest block. In-growth cores of 80 cm long × 20 cm wide and 60 cm-depth were used to estimate below ground biomass accumulation. Data on tree height and stem diameter at breast height (DBH-130) were used to estimate above ground biomass accumulation. Shoots were tagged for monitoring leaf phenology. Periodic measurements of environmental variables across four mangrove species zones were done at the beginning, thereafter every four months for a year. Composition and distribution pattern of natural regeneration was obtained using the method of linear regeneration sampling (LRS). Among the soil environment properties investigated, salinity had a significant negative correlation with above ground biomass accumulation. Comparing the four forest zones, Sonneratia alba had the highest biomass accumulation rate of 10.5 ± 1.9 t ha-1 yr-1. This was followed by Rhizophora mucronata (8.5 ± 0.8 t ha-1 yr-1), Avicennia marina (5.2 ± 1.8 t ha-1 yr-1), and Ceriops tagal (2.6 ± 1.5 t ha-1 yr-1). There were significant differences in above ground and below ground biomass accumulation across zones (F (3, 8) = 5.42, p = 0.025) and (F (3, 8) = 16.03, p = 0 001) respectively. Total biomass accumulation was significantly different across zones (F (3, 8) =15.56, p = 0.001). A root: shoot biomass accumulation ratio of 2:5 was computed for the whole forest. The finding of this study gives better estimates of mangrove carbon capture and storage which can be used in negotiations for carbon credits in the evolving carbon market.
  • A Schoolteacher's Guide to Marine Environmental Education in the Eastern African Region.

    Francis, J.; Mwinuka, S.; Richmond, M. (United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO)Nairobi, Kenya, 1999)
    The main objective of this book is to provide teachers of primary and secondary schools in the western Indian Ocean (WIO) region with a basic textbook that will allow them to introduce environmental components in the classroom as well as in outdoor activities. More specifically, it aims at supplying teachers, particularly those with a limited background in marine science, with an overview of the coastal and marine environment and its important ecosystems. Although some of the marine and coastal issues covered in this book already exist in the curricula of other subjects, such as science, geography and agriculture, their coverage in standard textbooks' is either very limited or too detailed and specialised. Therefore, this book can be used individually or together with other available information on the topics concerned, to complement curriculum objectives of the different subjects. The book comprises seven chapters, namely: (1) Environment and Ecology; (2) Oceans and Seas; (3) The Seashore; (4) Mangrove Forests; (5) Coral Reefs; (6) Coastal Pollution and (7) Coastal Resource Management. In the introduction of each of these chapters a section on 'Specific Objectives' is included to act as a guide for teachers to help determine their success at conveying the 'Background Information' to their students. To assist teachers measure changes in their students' attitudes towards the coastal environment in which they live, each chapter also includes a section on 'Skills and Behaviour to be Reinforced' which serves as a reminder of the overall goal of attitude change. Changing attitudes is the main aim of this book, and to assist in this process teachers are encouraged to develop classroom and outdoor activities which include the participation of the students in order to help them acquire new skills. A section on 'teaching and learning strategies' is included at the end of each chapter, listing a few examples of such activities. Teachers are free to decide how they wish to incorporate and disseminate the information provided. They are encouraged to develop their own individual presentation style and modify the teaching and learning strategies as they see fit to their situation and the experience of their students.
  • The African Science-base for Coastal Adaptation: a continental approach. A report to the African Union Commission (AUC) at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen (7-18 December 2009).

    Abuodha, P. (Intergovernmental Oceanographic CommissionParis, France, 2009)
    A report to the African Union Commission (AUC) at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen (7-18 December 2009). “In Gambia ... In 1998, the high water mark (HWM) was 50 m from the new Banjul-Serekunda Highway; in 2003 the HWM was only about 15 m from the highway” (Adaptation to Coastal Climate Change Project, ACCC, 2006a). Between Cape Point and the Banjul dockyard and the area between the Palm Grove Hotel and the Muslim cemetery erosion rates of between 15 and 20 m were recorded from 1964 to 1982...” In one brief paragraph we see the relentless attacks of rising sea levels and growing storm surges on one coastline, threatening four significant elements of society – transport, trade, tourism and tradition.
  • Dynamics of carbon and nitrogen in the mangrove forest of Gazi, Kenya: a numerical modelling approach

    Ong'anda, H.O. (Free University of Brussels, 1992)
    The numerical model described in this work has been designed to study the flow of carbon and nitrogen in a mangrove forest at Gazi Bay, Kenya. Several processes and storages of matter considered vital in the functioning of the ecosystem have been reviewed to help in the abstraction of the model and analysis. A numerical model represents the functioning of the ecosystem but is always limited due to the complexity of the system and lack of information on processes. A review of modelling work concerned with coastal ecosystems reveals that modelling is not only a means of summarising data from field studies, but that it can also be an integrated part of research effort useful in formulating research hypotheses and drawing up management options. The objectives of the Gazi model are similar in this respect. The abstraction of the system is presented as a box and arrow diagram showing storages and flows of matter. Changes in each of the state variables are function of some input and output processes and are represented in the model equations as ordinary differential equations. The processes are variously formulated using published ecosystem models, field data and personal effort. For ease of conceptualisation the modelling exercise has been handled in several submodels. The majority of the rate coefficients were estimated from field and literature values whereas a few others were chosen arbitrarily. Computer simulation of the system was done in an IBM compatible PC using a simulation package. A sensitivity analysis was carried out to investigate the sensitivity of the model to changes in input and parameter values. The favourable comparison between model output and information available points to the relative accuracy of the model. The results show that the nutrient contribution of the mangrove ecosystem to the contiguous zones is negative. The system exports carbon largely consisting of detritus poor in nitrogen. The flow of nitrogen through bacteria accounts for 72% of the total system nitrogen through flow (not including the import of nitrogen into the system). The mangrove ecosystem strongly consumes nitrogen and compensates for this by using inorganic nitrogen in the tidal water and possibly from sheetflow and underground seepage. More information is needed on the grazing habits of detritivores.
  • KenSea – tsunami damage modelling for coastal areas of Kenya

    Tychsen, J.; Geertz-Hansen, Ole; Schjøth, Frands (2008)
    The tsunami modelling is based on the assumption that the height of a future tsunami wave would be comparable with the one that reached the coastal area of Kenya in December 2004. Based on the regional geology of the Indian Ocean, it appears that the epicentre for a possible future earthquake that could lead to a new tsunami would most likely be situated in the eastern part of the ocean. Furthermore, based on a seismological assessment it has been estimated that the largest tsunami that can be expected to reach eastern Africa would have a 50% larger amplitude than the 2004 tsunami.
  • Kenya Tuna Fisheries Development And Management Strategy 2013-2018.

    Republic of Kenya, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries (Republic of Kenya, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and FisheriesKenya, 2013)
    The National Tuna Management and Development strategy provides a roadmap for the sustainable development of the Kenya's tuna fisheries resources occurring in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and ensuring an efficient tuna fisheries value chain. The overall goal of the strategy is to transit tuna fisheries from artisanal-based fisheries to modern commercially oriented coastal and oceanic fisheries and accelerate economic growth of the marine fisheries with direct positive impacts to employment, wealth creation, improved incomes and foreign exchange earnings. Chapter two reviews the current situation of tuna fisheries from a global, regional and national perspective regarding the status of tuna stocks, exploitation and impacts on marine ecosystems, the obtaining trade regimes and value chain activities and the prevailing tuna fisheries governance system. The strategy identifies four main strategic issues namely; Unsustainable utilization of marine resources; Low economic benefits accruing from tuna fisheries to the national economy; Inadequate tuna fisheries governance and General cross-cutting issues including gender issues, and HIV and Aids. To address the strategic issues, four strategic objectives are prioritized for implementation. First, the maintenance of tuna stocks at sustainable levels and minimizing negative fishing impacts on the marine ecosystem. Secondly, transformation of tuna fisheries from artisanal fisheries to a modern commercially oriented coastal and oceanic fisheries and developing an effective tuna fisheries governance system that takes into account national, regional and international requirements and addressing the impact of HIV/ AIDS pandemic and gender issues in tuna fisheries. A detailed implementation matrix for each strategic objective with the relevant activities is outlined in chapter five. Mechanisms for measuring progress during implementation and financing arrangements are highlighted in Chapter six.
  • Assessing the Potential of Small-Scale Aquaculture in Embu District, Kenya using GIS and Remote Sensing.

    Mukami, Ngarari M. (Moi University, 2010)
    Site selection for aquaculture development is a complex task involving identification of areas that are economically, socially and environmentally suitable, which can also be available for aquaculture. Geographic information systems and remote sensing technologies, which facilitate the integration and analysis of spatial and attribute data from multiple sources, have been widely used for selecting suitable sites for different land uses. This study used these technologies to identify sites suitable for aquaculture development in Embu District and assessed its potential contribution to food security and economic development in the area. The study developed map-based site selection criteria, using soil quality, water availability and socio-economic factors. These criteria were then implemented, aquaculture potential sites identified, the total area estimated and the economic impact assessed. The study predicted that about 20% (9,563 ha) of the total arable area of 47,800 ha in Embu District is suitable for aquaculture development. The study estimates that if aquaculture is optimally combined with other existing land use activities, it can contribute over Kshs. 9 billion per annum to the district’s revenue. Comparing this with the current 7 ha under aquaculture, Embu District has potential for improving its economic status through aquaculture development. The study recommends that similar studies be carried out throughout the country so as to improve food security and wealth creation.
  • The Kenya Pearl Oysters.

    Kimani, E.N.; Hoorweg, Jan; Muthiga, Nyawira (African Studies CentreLeiden, Netherlands, 2003)
    This report provides a brief description of the pearl shell trade and the occurrence of pearl oyster species between Shimoni and Malindi, in Kenya and the population densities and structure of the most important commercial species, Pinctada margaritifera L from preliminary data collected in 1998 and 1999. Pinctada margaritifera L, and Pteria chinensis Leach, were widely distributed in the study area. The species, Pteria penguin Roding, only occurred in the Wasini Channel in Shimoni. P.margaritifera population density was highest in shallow sites dominated by seagrass within Gazi Bay. Pooled population density data showed that the oysters were more abundant in shallow water, less than 5 m depth. Most of the individuals in the samples were between 10 to 60 mm in size. The largest individual was 123 mm and was collected from a sheltered reef in Shimoni. There were more males than females and the mean size of females was larger than that of males. The size at first maturity of males was smaller than that of females. The proportion of males was higher in small-size class oysters and lower in large-size classes. These reproductive adaptations appear to be a strategy to sustain the oyster population.
  • Strategies Used by Local Fishers to Ensure access to and Control over Scarce resources in Galu and the Wider Implications for Marine Resource Management.

    King, A.; Hoorweg, Jan; Muthiga, Nyawira (African Studies CentreLeiden, Netherlands, 2003)
    An analysis of livelhoods and production systems in the community of Biga, Galu sub-location, showed that there was a high degree of socioeconomic differentiation within the community. Differences related to production methods. These included different fishing methods, land use activities, economic activities or different combinations of the above. The processes by which fishers tackled problems of resource access and control were investigated for three situations: the attempted implementation of the Diani-Chale marine reserve; the grabbing of Trust land earmarked for fisheries community use at Mwaepe; the conflict between local Digo fishers and migrant Wapemba fishers. Using social network analysis the importance of different actors (groups, individuals and organizations) in solving the fishers' problems was determined. The results showed that some unexpected actors, such as those without natural resource management remits, were very important in the process. The social network analysis also showed that although people's resource access and control are shaped by many interacting institutions, adhoc processes, where people simply seek whatever path is necessary to solve their problems, also play an important role. The wider implications for marine resource management relate to creating socio-political and institutional environments that enable problems to be solved. Discussion includes the need to have a better understanding of what is going on at the local level, both in terms of livelihoods and institutional arrangements. It also questions the validity and effectiveness of current over structured approaches to management that impinge on peoples' ability to safeguard their food security.
  • Shrimp Trawling in Ungwana Bay A Threat to Fishery Resources.

    Fulanda, B.; Hoorweg, Jan; Muthiga, Nyawira (African Studies CentreLeiden, Netherlands, 2003)
    This paper examines the landings of three trawlers fishing the Ungwana Bay (Kenya) over a seven day period totalling about 200 hrs fishing time. A critical analysis is made of the catch and its composition in terms of marketable catch (target species and commercial fish) and bycatch (non-commercial, juveniles and debris). Prawns made up 13.7% of the catch while commercial fish amounted to 14.4% of the total. The remainder (71.9%) comprised of bycatch. Further breakdown showed that non-commercial fish made up the bulk of the by-catch with 42.9%. This group included Branchyura, Apogonidae, Leiognathidae, Squillidae and Gobiidae families. Juveniles accounted for 23.6% of the by-catch. The latter consisted for almost two-thirds of juveniles of commercial fish among which Ariidae were the commonest. Other families included Atherinidae and Carangidae. In the shallow 'Kipini' area, trawling does considerable damage to the benthic fauna and flora. The trawling attracts a large population of piscivorous birds creating artificial and unstable food webs. A Turtle Excluder Device (Anthony Weedless) was used on one of the trawlers but it appeared to result in lower catch of commercial fish allowing only small species and undersized fish into the cod end. It is concluded that the trawlers pose a threat to both the Ungwana fishery and other marine resources.
  • Water Quality and Species Diversity of Intertidal Macroalgae.

    Mwayuli, G.A.; Manohar, S.; Hoorweg, Jan; Muthiga, Nyawira (African Studies CentreLeiden, Netherlands, 2003)
    Spatial and temporal changes in species diversity, abundance and composition of macroalgae in the intertidal zones at Kanamai and Da Gama Point along the Kenyan north coast were studied from March to September 1999 to investigate their relationship with water quality. A total of 63 species of macroalgae were collected, 23 belong to Chlorophyta, 23 to Rhodophyta and 17 to phaeophyta. There was an increase in the coliform number per 100ml of water from 60 to >1600 and from 90 to 1600 at Kanamai and Da Gama Point respectively. Phosphate levels showed an increase from 0.56 to 1.025 and from 1.420 to 1.750 mu g atoms P/litre for Kanamai and Da Gama Point respectively. Ammonia also incleased from 1.350 to 1.540 and from 3.800 to 4.250 mu g atom N/litre for Kanamai and Da Gama Point respectively. At Da Gama point there was a tendency towards dominance by fewer species. Pollution by sewage and elevated nutrient levels is evident. Kanamai is less nutrient-rich resulting in the higher species diversity, composition and eveness in distribution.
  • The Impact of Human Activities on Epibenthic Bivalve Communities.

    Boera, N.P.; Okeyo-Owuor, J.B.; Wangila, B.C.C.; Hoorweg, Jan; Muthiga, Nyawira (African Studies CentreLeiden, Netherlands, 2003)
    A total of 17 bivalve species belonging to 135 families were collected and identified in Malindi, Mombasa Marine National Parks, and Kanamai from Oct.'97 to Mar.'98. Bivalve fauna showed densities 2/m super(2), and low diversity. Modiolus auriculatus and Pinna muricata were the most represented. There was a significant difference in species diversity between Malindi and Mombasa reef flats at p>0.10. Shallow lagoons had very low density and diversity as compared to sea grass and reef flat zones. This was attributed to the high deposits of shell, coral, and sand. Swimming, goggling/scuba diving, walking/trampling and turning of rocks were identified as the main forms human activities causing disturbance to the bivalves. Frequencies of occurrence of these activities varied in the three areas with Kanamai exhibiting the highest. Trampling had the most notable impact and was used to show the impact of human activities on the most vulnerable species. Results show that the distribution of bivalve fauna in the protected and unprotected areas is density independent and is not only influenced by human activities and management strategy but rather by other biological and environmental factors such as substrate type, tide range and wave activity. Human activities however affect those bivalves with fragile shells such as Pinna muricata, through trampling resulting in injury and/or death. Presence of man affects the routine activities of the others such as Tellina flavum, Anadara antiquata, Tridacna squamosa and Codakia punctata. Therefore spreading out of human activities within the marine parks is recommended to reduce their impacts. These activities should be spread out into the reserves and unprotected areas.
  • Macrofaunal Assemblages of Littoral Seagrass Communities.

    Muthama, C.M.; Uku, J.N.; Hoorweg, Jan; Muthiga, Nyawira (African Studies CentreLeiden, Netherlands, 2003)
    A comparison of macrofauna found in vegetated seagrass areas and unvegetated areas was undertaken in Nyali Beach, Kenya. This study was aimed at establishing the importance of seagrasses to the Kenyan marine environment. Sampling was conducted during the N.E. and S.E. monsoon periods. The trends show that the vegetated areas had a slightly higher abundance of macrofauna compared to the unvegetated areas. Furthermore, the areas with a mixed vegetation cover supported a higher number of macrofauna during the N.E monsoon. The overall abundance of macrofauna was also found to be higher during the N.E. monsoon period. This paper discusses the importance of different seagrasses in the maintenance of coastal biodiversity.
  • Coastal Erosion at Mombasa Beaches Hydrodynamic and Morphological Interactions.

    Mwakumanya, M.A.; Tole, M.P.; Hoorweg, Jan; Muthiga, Nyawira (African Studies CentreLeiden, Netherlands, 2003)
    Complex interactions of various natural processes together with anthropogenic activities on the beaches have encouraged coastal erosion along the Kenyan coast. Inadequate information on site-specific hydrodynamic and morphological and morphological interactions on the shores has encouraged mitigation measures which are ineffective and expensive to implement. Hydrodynamic and morphological parameters were measured both in field and laboratory. Hydrodynamic variables contributed significantly to the morphological variability which consequently accelerated beach erosion and shoreline instability. Nyali beach which was dominantly fine sand (0 2.62-2.83), moderately well sorted (0 0.564.75) and negatively skewed was characterised by low energy surging waves with high swash and low backwash velocity at high periodicity. Sediment composition was mainly quartz. Bamburi beach was of medium sized calcareous sand (0 2.79-1.84), moderately to poorly sorted sand (O 1.34-0.87) and negatively skewed. Hydrodynamic conditions were of high energy pluging waves and high backwash velocities. Wave energy contributed about 74.2% to the slope changes and about 83.0% to sediment distribution on the beaches. Generally steep shores of coarse sediments showed active erosion activities with a rate of retreat of about 0.15m/month to 0.22 m/month of the shoreline. It is recommended that measures be taken to dissipate wave energy before wave break on the shoreline and to develop effective legislation to protect the shoreline for sustainable planning utilisation and management of the marine ecosystem.
  • Solid Waste Management in Mombasa District.

    Maende, S.; Hoorweg, Jan; Muthiga, Nyawira (African Studies CentreLeiden, Netherlands, 2003)
    Aspects of solid waste management in Mombasa District are analysed. The findings are from a survey conducted between November 1998 and February 1999, that covered educational Institutions, supermarkets, hospitals, hotels and restaurants, markets, recreational parks, industries, waste collectors, residential areas, and waste re-users and recyclers - all drawn from Mombasa District. The paper outlines issues of waste generation, handling, transportation, storage and disposal special emphasis on waste re-use and recycling. Brief recommendations are included.
  • Solid Waste Pollution Loads In Beach Hotels on the Kenyan South Coast.

    Muthini, M.; Tole, M.P.; Hoorweg, Jan; Muthiga, Nyawira (African Studies CentreLeiden, Netherlands, 2003)
    During the high tourist season between September 1996 and February l997, solid waste types and quantities from six popular beach hotels in Mombasa and Diani were determined. The factors and processes that affect solid waste management in the region were examined and baseline data on quantities of waste generated in coast hotels are provided. The mean percapita waste generation rate was found to be 1.90 kg/person/day and the relative proportions by weight of the respective waste categories were: paper 3.5%, plastics 3.3%, tins 1.7%, glass 4.5% food waste 79.1%, cartons 2.0%, and residual waste 6.0%. The rates of generation of waste components were also calculated. The annual waste load was found to be 362 tons for Jadini Beach Hotel and Africana Sea Lodge; 200 tons for Leopard Beach Hotel; 159 tons for Diani Sea lodge; 192 tons for Severin Sea Lodge and 150 tons for Mombasa Beach Hotel. Limited recycling, re-use and composting practices were undertaken by some of the hotels such as Mombasa Beach Hotel, Severin Sea Lodge and Dianl Sea Lodge. Tins were re-used for planting tree seedlings and flowers. Glass waste and cartons were collected by dealers for recycling. Food waste was used to feed pigs. The results of the study make it possible to develop a feasible waste management concept for the hotels. There is potential for recycling re-use and composting of the waste generated. It is recommended that hotels effectively separate waste at source to ensure high quality waste components for further processing. This will help to reduce the costs of waste disposal, minimise health risks and improve the quality of the environment.

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