• Abordagem com traços das espécies permite a identificação das relações das aves piscívoras com o ambiente.

      Santa Maria, Ândrea Westphal (Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Departamento de Biologia. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquáticos Continentais., 2015)
      The identification of environmental filtering on species traits allows the prediction on community dynamics facing environmental disturbances. This study was performed at a floodplain in order to embrace a large range of spatial and temporal environmental gradients. Piscivorous birds were used as the model assemblage since they respond promptly to environmental changes and hence are considered indicator species that track habitat quality. RLQ analysis and fourth-corner approach were performed aiming to identify (i) environmental variables that might influence piscivorous bird abundances within their foraging habitat and (ii) trait combinations of piscivorous bird species that vary according to biotic and abiotic gradients. Three main avian groups were distinguished due to the influence of environmental filters over traits concerning foraging tactics and morphology: wading birds, pursuit swimmers and aerial piscivores. Wading birds are more abundant in shallower and larger lakes that have higher nutrient and dissolved oxygen concentrations, higher primary production but lower conductivity. Pursuit swimmers are more abundant in deeper and larger lakes that have lower nutrient concentration, lower primary production but higher conductivity and higher abundance of larger fish (15 – 30 cm). Aerial piscivores are more numerous in summer and in larger, deeper lakes that have higher conductivity but lower dissolved oxygen concentration. Thus, morphological and behavioral bird traits are of relevant importance on tracking spatial and temporal food resources variations. Moreover, environmental filters are the determinants of the structure of piscivorous birds assemblage in this floodplain.
    • Abordagem multimétrica na avaliação da integridade ecológica : fundamentos conceituais e aplicações.

      Ruaro, Renata (Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Departamento de Biologia. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquáticos Continentais., 2019)
      The use of multimetric indices (MMIs) to assess ecological conditions in aquatic environments has been applied globally. These indices are practical tools that incorporate various biotic metrics at different levels of biological organization. However, criticism has been directed to the use of MMIs, especially regarding the methodological criteria applied in the process such as related to metric selection and scoring and identification of reference conditions that consider all sources of ecological integrity disturbance. A review of the scientific literature was carried out to evaluate processes of creation and validation of MMIs worldwide. The criteria used by scientists to identify reference conditions, metric selection and scoring, the main metrics globally used in MMIs, and the challenges in applying these indices were verified. It was identified whether nonnative species have been considered as a source of degradation of ecological integrity in the MMIs application. The results indicated that there are no common criteria for determining reference conditions, for metric selection and scoring, which makes it difficult to compare different programs and regions, and to develop or improve future MMIs. The results showed that metrics related to species richness were most frequently used in MMIs applied worldwide, thus, it represents a consistent response pattern in the assessment of ecological conditions. The results also indicate that differentiating natural variability from anthropogenic impacts was evidenced as the major challenge in the MMIs creation and application. The review of the scientific literature indicated that biological invasions are neglected in ecological integrity assessments, as nonnative species are rarely considered as a disturbing factor in identifying reference conditions and species origin metrics are not widely used in MMIs. The results presented in this review may promote the advancement and improvement of MMIs as bioassessment tools.
    • Abundância e estrutura de tamanho das comunidades de protozoários planctônicos em uma planície de inundação neotropical : efeitos dos mecanismos de controle ascendente e descendente.

      Meira, Bianca Ramos de (Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Departamento de Biologia. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquáticos Continentais., 2014)
      The understanding of ecosystem functioning occurs, in large part, through knowledge of their interactions within food webs, in which occurs the flow of matter and energy. Studies of interactions between its components are fundamental to the understanding of food chains, given its importance to nutrient cycling, accumulation of biomass and carbon flux. These organisms can be strongly affected by the availability of resources and the effect of predation on aquatic environments. We evaluated the influence of bottom-up and top-down control mechanisms on the abundance and size structure of planktonic protists (flagellates and ciliates), and hypothesized that bottom-up would control the abundance while top-down would affect the size of those organisms. As predicted, resources were the most important variables determining the abundance of protists, mostly by picophytoplankton and bacteria. The size structure was influenced by both resources and predation. Besides, resource contribution to protist biomass was mainly through herbivory in all phytoplankton sizes, both at the surface and the bottom of the environments.
    • Algas perifíticas em um lago de planície de inundação : um estudo de longa duração.

      Carapunarla, Luciana (Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Departamento de Biologia. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquáticos Continentais., 2011)
      This is the first approach of long-term research (11 years) about periphytic algae community in the Paraná River floodplain and is part of the LTER project - site 6. We sought to evaluate the structure of periphyton community in El Niño, La Niña and Normal periods, analyze abiotic factors influence on this structure and find a model to the density of periphyton algae community structure in the 11 years, correlating with Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies (SSTA) indicating the influence of El Niño or La Niña periods. The periphyton was collected in two anual periods (February or March and August or September), in the Patos Lake, High Paraná river floodplain`s lentic environment between 1999 to 2009. During eight years (1999 to 2001 and 2005 to 2009) was found higher values of density in August/ September and lower, in February/March. In other years (2002 to 2004) this pattern was reversed, with higher values in February/March months. In these years (2002 to 2004) the patterns of SSTA ranged, with La Niña and normality periods. The higher density was found in 2002 February, after a long drought. The lower density was found in 2005, in March this year, period with higher richness in the study (165 taxa), when the Paraná River level reached higher values. This year among all was recorded the highest abundance in August/ September periods. The total density pattern was determined by the diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) density variation, independent of hydrological period. In the eleven years the periphytic algae community density responded to local environmental variables, and the model summarized 45%of the first NMDS axis, indicating the community structure by water temperature, conductivity, alkalinity, nitrate and hydrometric level of the Paraná River. We conclude that the pulse characteristic (intensity, frequency and amplitude) was influenced by global climate phenomena (ENSO) influencing local environmental variables, which structure the periphytic algae community.
    • Algas perifíticas sobre substrato artificial e natural no rio do Corvo (tributário do reservatório de Rosana) : composição, abundância, biomassa e produtividade.

      Felisberto, Sirlene Aparecida (Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Departamento de Biologia. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquáticos Continentais., 2007)
      This paper aimed to study the composition and species richness of periphytic algae in response to the time of colonization on artificial and natural substratum in a tropical reservoir. Egeria najas as used as natural substratum and plastic plant as artificial. This experiment was accomplished in the Corvo River, tributary of the Rosana reservoir (Paranapanema basin). The samplings were accomplished in the period from 21 November to 12 December 2003. This period is characterized as hot and rainy. The changes in the species composition in artificial substratum were analyzed using the Jaccard similarity and beta diversity indices. Composition and species richness didn't different in the two substrata. 495 taxa were registered in the phycoperiphytic community, distributed in 133 genera and 11 classes. Zygnemaphyceae presented higher species number, following for Bacillariophyceae, Chlorophyceae and Cyanophyceae, in both substrata. Staurodesmus, Closterium, Staurastrum and Cosmarium (Desmidiales); Gomphonema and Eunotia (Penales); Characium, Scenedesmus and Desmodesmus (Chlorococcales) were the most specious genera, independent of the substratum type. Among the growth forms, not flagelad unicellular algae dominated the assemblies of the two substrata. The results of the beta diversity, in general, demonstrated that artificial substratum presented a tendency of higher substitution of species in the 3ª week. The epiphytic community reached higher richness and species diversity in the 15th sucessional day. This fact was demonstrated in the dendrograma of the similarity analysis, where 15th day differentiated of the other days. Species richness, independent of the substratum type was probably related the higher nutrients and turbidity values, as well as action of wind and rainfall.
    • Alimentação e análise morfológica de quatro espécies de peixes (Astyanax altiparanae, Parauchenipterus galeatus, Serrasalmus marginatus e Hoplias aff. malabaricus) na planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná, Brasil.

      Peretti, Danielle (Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Departamento de Biologia. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquáticos Continentais., 2006)
      The species was set in two trophic guilds - insectivores (Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000, Parauchenipterus galeatus (Linnaeus, 1766) and piscivores (Serrasalmus marginatus Valenciennes, 1847 and Hoplias aff. malabaricus (Bloch, 1794). The first two, although consumers of insects, explored different alimentary groups, standing out the Hymenoptera to A. altiparanae and Coleoptera to P. galeatus. Serrasalmus marginatus and H. aff. malabaricus consumed mainly fishes, however just pieces of preys were more often found in the first specie stomach content and whole fishes in the second one. The morphology of the digestive tract was important to do inferences as how the predators obtain and use food resources. Astyanax altiparanae exhibited characteristics that allowed it to obtain food in several compartments of the water column according to mouth position and the type of food explored associated with characteristics as teeth, gill rakers and pyloric cecum. Also P. galeatus consumed food resources that are available in all aquatic compartments, however the characteristics to capture, to manipulate and to absorb food differed, being evidenced the importance of teeth plates and pharyngeal teeth. Serrasalmus marginatus and H. aff. malabaricus although resembling each other in many aspects of the digestive tract morphology they differed in the strategies to capture preys. It still stands out, as one of the several mechanisms to avoid the prey escape when already inside the digestive tract structures, the presence of striated muscle in the initial portion of the H. aff. malabaricus stomach.
    • Alimentação e assimilação energética de peixe herbívoro como indicadores de invasão em planície de inundação Neotropical.

      Emerich, Daniela Maria Sandoli (Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Departamento de Biologia. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquáticos Continentais, 2019)
      Diet composition, energy density (ED) and body condition factor (M̂i) are useful tools to identify the structure and functioning of the aquatic food chain, as well as the impacts on communities. Thus, about the hypothesis that the population of a herbivorous fish species presents lower variability of food items and, consequently, lower values in the physiological parameters (ED and M̂i) in the environment most impacted by the invasion of species, when compared to the populations of environments with less influence of invasive species, sampling was carried out on a Neotropical floodplain between 2015 and 2018. The composition and variability of food items, and ED, differed among subsystems, with the highest values recorded in the most impacted environment. The lowest values of M̂i were observed in the most impacted subsystem, and those considered less impacted did not differ. The greater variability of food items and energy density found in the impacted environment is due to the presence of invasive species, which occurred exclusively at this location. It is assumed that the lower values of M̂i are due to the energy expenditure of maintenance in the environment of greater transparency in the water column and associated with the escape of predation by the invader Cichla kelberi (Peacock bass), when compared with the investments in growth (lower standard length) and reproduction (lower population abundance). Therefore, it is suggested the implementation of management and monitoring measures that aim to control the presence of invasive species and ensure the maintenance of the biodiversity of native fauna.
    • Alteração dos níveis fluviométricos a jusante de barragens : influência da inversão de fluxo sobre a assembleia de peixes em tributários da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná.

      Ferreira, Karina (Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Departamento de Biologia. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquáticos Continentais., 2015)
      Among the impacts imposed by dams on downstream basin stretches are those resulting from the changes in discharge, both natural, with increase of the minimum and decrease of the maximum, as the short-term resulting from the dam operation. The effects of this regulation are particularly relevant in floodplains, where in addition to affecting the connectivity between biotopes, can lead to reversal of flow in relevant stretches of tributaries, such as the Baía River in Upper Paraná River. It was verified the intensity and the extent to which the reversal of tributary flow modifies the limnological variables as well as the structure of fish assemblages associated with macrophytes. The reverse flow differed from normal flow by higher values of transparency, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH and conductivity. Changes to these variables were not, however, significant for different tributary stretches analyzed. There was no significant difference in the abundance and species richness. The evenness significantly differed only in relation to the position, with higher average value before Curutuba channel. The standard length showed higher average before Curutuba channel or when the flow was reversed, which may be indicative of larger fish from the Paraná River and the search for refuge from predators. The structure of fish assemblages differed significantly from the position of the points. Apparently, the differences were not accentuated by the fact that the species of the studied area is exposed to this impact for over 10 years and also by the presence of macrophyte that positively influence the diversity of fish. It is evident the need for more intensive studies of the impacts promoted by dams downstream, as a result of reverse flow, which has great influence for limnological variables and fish assemblage structure. It must be emphasized that this kind of impact is very little considered in the literature, but may be the mechanism to explain several processes, especially for the maintenance of biological diversity in the Upper Paraná River floodplain.
    • Alterações na dieta de peixes associados ao cultivo de tilápias em tanques-rede no reservatório de Rosana, rio Paranapanema.

      Demetrio, Jose Antonio (Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Departamento de Biologia. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquáticos Continentais., 2010)
      This study evaluated the effects of tilapia cultivation in net cages on the diet of associated wild ichthyofauna in the Corvo River, Rosana Reservoir, Paranapanema River. It identified the direct and indirect effects of different protein levels in spare feed inside the net cages on the distribution and abundance of fish in adjacent areas, taking into account the specific variations in natural food and artificial feed intake. The recording of different results established by control data and variations in protein content for the cultivation reveals the alimentary content of the dominant species to an extent that altered not only the intake pattern of the associated fish assemblage but also intensified artificial feed absorption. The introduction of organic matter also led to the proliferation of microcrustaceans, abrupt oscillations in the composition of food items, with distinct variations among species, thus expanding trophic levels of ichthyofauna in the cultivation area. Artificial feed altered the food intake pattern of the fish assemblage associated with cultivation in net cages, expanding feeding intensity, as measured by stomach fullness levels. Changes in diet for the artificial feed were more evident in four of the eight dominant species of the fish assemblage, among them P.maculatus and I.labrosus, as they were related to the proximity of the net cages and the background environment. The volumes and occurrences of items recorded by the food index (IAi) showed a large intake of zooplankton, aquatic insects and feed. Dominant species Auchenipterus osteomystax, Steindachnerina brevipinna, Iheringichthys labrosus, Loricariichthys platymetopon, Plagioscion squamosissimus, Pimelodus maculatus, Metynnes maculatus and Satanoperca pappaterra, on a percentage basis, ingested more aquatic insects than terrestrial insects, algae, detritus, sediment, decapods, plants and feed. The frequency of occurrence and stomach volume from one phase to another highlights the increasing presence of feed, insects, and microcrustaceans. Peculiarities involving the type of feed, distance, the background environment and participation of species groups marked the influence of net cages.
    • Ambiente, saúde e qualidade de vida : condições e perspectivas nos conjuntos habitacionais de Porto Rico, Estado do Paraná, Brasil.

      Silva, Doris Marli Petry Paulo da (Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Departamento de Biologia. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquáticos Continentais., 2009)
      As part of the activities of the Doctorate Program in Ecology of Continental Aquatic Environments at the Maringa University State, a research project was conducted on the perception of quality of life by a segment of the residents of the municipality Porto Rico, Parana State, Brazil. The study investigated how environmental processes are related with the health conditions of the Porto Rico population and with their evaluations of their own quality of life; based on that knowledge, it would be possible to devise proposals to minimize such conditions. The study was conducted at the Flamingo, Por do Sol and Casa Feliz housing complexes, which are located in the urban area of town, during the months of June 2005 and January 2006. The sample consisted of 63 residents of all three complexes. Data were obtained through home surveys, using two forms devised by the World Health Organization's Group for Quality of Life (OMS, 1998): the Abbreviated Instrument for Quality of Life Assessment (WHOQOL-bref) and the Respondent Data Sheet, with additional data on the family members of that household. The data were processed using Statistical Analysis Software (SAS) and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software, and the CHAID algorithm. Initially, the study evaluated the socioeconomic and work conditions of 63 families living in the aforementioned housing complexes, with a total of 224 people. Next, self-reported morbidity was compared between both groups of interviewees, and the CHAID technique was applied to explain the trends in the variables that explained the evaluation of the quality of life of that population, as analyzed by WHOQOL-bref. The results indicated that the social conditions of these families were influenced by their low levels of education, allied with the lack of work options, thus compromising family income. Residents of group B mentioned better health and income conditions. The findings of self-reported morbidity followed the national trend of acute infectious diseases caused by inadequate environmental conditions and of chronic illnesses, in groups of middle-aged and elderly groups, as results of chosen lifestyles and the social conditions of the residents. Most interviewees expressed satisfaction regarding their quality of life. The variables that generated the most dissatisfaction were related to pain and available transportation. The use of CHAID made possible the mapping of variables that interfered in the evaluations of each of the domains that make up the concept of 'quality of life', and its use is recommended in similar studies. It can be affirmed that a good quality of life is reflected, most of all, in individual quality of health, which confirms that quality of life depends on conditions of health and surroundings.
    • Amebas testáceas (Arcellinida e Euglyphida) de diferentes biótipos de uma lagoa da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná.

      Alves, Geziele Mucio (Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Departamento de Biologia. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquáticos Continentais., 2010)
      In continental aquatic environments, testate amoebae have been studied at different biotopes, as sediment, aquatic macrophytes and plankton of rivers, reservoirs and lakes. However there are no studies that evaluate the community structure of these protists in these three biotopes within the same environment. Besides ecological studies, the biometric approach has been applied in the last two decades with testate amoebae. In this way, the present study quantified and tested the relationships of composition, abundance, morphological types and size structure of testate amoebae, between the communities present at different biotopes (plankton, aquatic macrophytes and sediment) from a marginal lake of the Upper Paraná River floodplain. During the study period the species identified in the plankton were not represented by the most abundant species in aquatic macrophytes and sediment. The most abundant species for the plankton was Difflugia gramen, while for macrophytes and sediment was Centropyxis aculeata. The predominant morphological type of the shell in plankton (spherical and hemispheric) was different from the other two biotopes (flattened and elongated). Regarding the size structure of the community, we recorded the predominance of smaller individuals in the plankton and larger ones, in sediment. During the high water period, we observed smaller sized individuals in all biotopes. Our results suggested that the planktonic biotope presents characteristic populations, able to produce gas vacuoles and shells with low density, higher abundance of shells formed by endogenous material, which ensure the success of these populations in this habitat. Moreover, the size differences are probably associated to metabolic activities, i.e., to energy requirements of these unicellular organisms at each biotope type.
    • Anatomia da raiz de oito espécies de macrófitas aquáticas emergentes da planície alagável do alto rio Paraná.

      Marques, Ângela Maria Marques Sanches (Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Departamento de Biologia. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquáticos Continentais., 2008)
      The floodplain of the high Paraná river is characterized by the existence of several aquatic and transitional habitats among the aquatic and terrestrial environment, influencing in the presence and distribution of the aquatic macrophyte. With the objective of comparing the anatomy of the roots of eight species of emerging aquatic macrophyte, sampling were accomplished in different places and prepared permanent slides for analysis and capture of images. The species possess epidermis uniseriate of narrow and long cells, cortex composed by exodermis uniseriate or biseriate, with or without thickening, aerenchyma with great gaps, endodermis uniseriate, with or without thickening, continuous pericycle or interrupted and central cylinder with variable number of xylem poles.
    • Análise comparativa das comunidades de metazoários endoparasitas de Metynnis lippincottianus (Cope, 1870) (Characidae) em dois diferentes ecossistemas aquáticos influenciados pela Usina Hidrelétrica de Rosana.

      Moreira, Luis Henrique de Aquino (Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Departamento de Biologia. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquáticos Continentais., 2008)
      Brazil has a rich hydrografy, resulting in great diversity of fishes. Among these fishes species was developed an ichthyoparasitological study with Metynnis lippincottianus (Cope, 1870) (Characidae) in two places, showing different degrees of impact due to Hydro electric plant; The upper Parana River floodplain (low degree of impact) and Paranapanema tributaries (Corvo and Guairacá rivers, high degree of impact). Among 84 hosts collected, 44 in the floodplain (from March of 2006 to December 2007 ) and 40 in the tributaries (from April to August ), the prevalence was 77.4% (72.7% in the floodplain and 82.5% in the tributaries). One digenetic species, Dadayus pacupeva, and four nematoda, Spinoxyuris oxydoras, Contracaecum sp. (larval stage), Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus e Raphidascaris (Sprentascaris) mahnerti were identified (new records in M. lippincottianus). The parasites showed clumped distribution. Several central and secondary species were found, suggesting stability in the parasite community. There was no correlation between parasitism and sex host. The stages of sexual maturation, relative conditional factor, locality, standard length of host showed correlation with prevalence and abundance of some parasites species. There was no correlation between parasitic diversity with sex host in both places, however, was correlated with standard length.
    • Análise da paisagem e suas relações com ambientes florestais de áreas úmidas protegidas.

      Araujo, Letícia Nunes (Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Departamento de Biologia. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquáticos Continentais., 2015)
      The land use and occupation has modified the landscape structure, mainly wetlands. The creation of protected areas has contributed to the territorial planning, landscape structure and the development of conservation strategies. In order to understand the relationship between the landscape use and management and the arboreous vegetation of the protected wetlands, was performed the evaluation of land use and occupation and the sizing of fragments in the region of a full protection conservation units (CU) (PEVRI), also the structure and composition analysis of the remaining arboreous vegetation patches. The result was that CU fragments are more conserved than those in the buffer zone (BZ), showed in this study by the larger basal area and volume of the arboreous species and less incidence of exotic invasive species. The land use differed between these areas, the CU had more natural areas than BZ. Unlike of species composition, the values of diversity and richness not differed between the fragments of CU and BZ. Thus, the landscape management by increasing and protection natural areas, including in BZ, can favor the recovery of arboreous vegetation in protected wetlands, combating biological invasion and effectively maintaining regional biodiversity.
    • Análise de regras de montagem em diferentes configurações de uma metacomunidade.

      Message, Hugo José (Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Departamento de Biologia. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquáticos Continentais., 2015)
      The metacommunities assembly rules depend on the dispersion pathways in landscape. Our aim was to analyze assembly rule patterns in different metacommunities configurations defined by the dispersion possibility. We choose an extensive (25 years) dataset from a tropical floodplain fish metacommunity as a model to tested the hypothesis that assembly rules are different in this three configuration: in dry season (low dispersion) and anthropogenic (dams) assembly rules are determined by traits convergent patterns, meanwhile in flood season traits divergent patterns rules. Moreover, we measured the most influential traits in the process for each configuration. For this, we correlated three matrices: B - functional fuzzy weighting traits; W - local composition (binary data) and; E- environmental gradient (axis1 PCoA). In addition, we analyzed Spearman correlation between Functional Redundancy and species diversity (rFRxSD), Functional Diversity (DF) (Rao entropy) and determined the most influential functional traits (randomizations among B lines to find the maximum correlation with the patterns). We found no patterns in dry and anthropogenic configurations, yet both convergence and divergence patterns in flood. rRFxSIMP decreased temporarily in all configurations. DF decrease along the time especially in rivers (dispersion pathways). The most influential traits were sedentary, parent care and annual spawning in lakes; migratory, no parental care and Benthopelagic in rivers. Our results partially confirmed our hypothesis and suggested that metacomunidades are organized differently according to its configuration. In full the existing dispersal routes directing a pattern of the assembly because interactions between species are weaker, but the pattern disappears in drought and in anthropogenic disturbances due to the opposing forces structuring. In addition, it detected cumulative effect of anthropogenic impacts on the stability of communities and the weakening of dispersal routes, rivers, over time, in addition to confirming the different functions of landscape elements in metacomunidades. We therefore conclude that the dispersal routes organize the assembly of the meta community and that their absence randomizes this process keeping the individualized landscape environments. And recommended that time series are to be analyzed and that the taxonomic and functional diversity need to be evaluated when communities are studied in dynamic landscapes.
    • Análise fitossociológica em formação ripária da floresta estacional semidecidual no sul do Brasil : rio Pirapó, Cruzeiro do Sul, PR.

      Corino, Helverton Luís (Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Departamento de Biologia. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquáticos Continentais., 2006)
      A phytosociological study was made on the remaining riparian forest, located on the left bank of the Pirapó River (22°57'06"S; 52°02'40"W) . The research was carried out by using the point-centered-quarter method. Only individuals with a PBH ≥15 cm were included in the study. A total of 90 points were sampled in three different blocks, each one containing three parallel lines going along the river. The distance between the points was 10 meters. The floristic composition resulted in 72 species, embracing 58 genera and 28 families. The total density estimated was 1.375 individuals per hectare. Leguminosae and Myrtaceae were the families with the highest specific richness. The species considered the most important, regarding values (IV), were Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng.), Harms, Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn., Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Cambess.) O. Berg, Diatenopteryx sorbifolia Radlk. and Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell.) Toledo. The specific diversity, estimated by using Shannon index (H') was 3.81, whereas, the equability (J') was 0.88. Such values were above the average, if compared to the statistics on riparian forests of semi-deciduous seasonal forests covering the State of Paraná.
    • Análise genética e da estratégia de ocupação das populações de Egeria (Hydrocharitaceae) da bacia do alto rio Paraná.

      Lucio, Léia Carolina (Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Departamento de Biologia. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquáticos Continentais., 2009)
      Egeria densa and Egeria najas (Hydrocharitaceae) are native species from the Upper Paraná River Basin (Brazil). They colonize a variety of ecosystems and are characterized by having an intense flow of propagules within and between environments. The main goals of this thesis were to: (i) assess the genetic diversity of Egeria populations, (ii) use markers corresponding to the trnL partial sequence and to trnL-trnF intergenic spacer from the cpDNA and ITS region of rDNA to molecularly characterize E. densa and E. najas populations; and (iii) isolate microsatellites region to design primers that flank SSR regions for Egeria densa. The low genetic diversity of both E. densa and E. najas populations, observed using dominant molecular markers, indicates a predominance of vegetative reproduction. However, this observation does not discard completely the presence of sexual reproduction. The characterization of nucleotide sequences from both chloroplastidic and nuclear genomes identified distinct haplotypes in both species. However, only the nuclear genome (corresponding to the ITS region of rDNA) allowed the discrimination of different haplotypes and was useful to molecularly characterize E. densa and E. najas. Moreover, one of the haplotype combinations may indicate that genetic recombination is present, although rare. Codominantes molecular markers, such as microsatellites (SSR), generated higher polymorphism and were more successful to evaluate the genetic diversity of Egeria populations. However, few SSR primers are currently described for aquatic vegetation. The isolation and development of these primers were completed in our study, with future prospects for their employment. Genetic analyses of Egeria populations are useful to understand the occupation strategy of the environments of the Upper Paraná River basin. The migration processes of vegetative fragments and the low genetic variability of individuals, which increases with distance among patches, suggests that Egeria populations follow a Metapopulation dynamics. Microsatellite markers were more efficient than the dominant markers and support more conclusive investigations about the genetics and occupancy of native populations of E. densa and E. najas in the Upper Paraná River basin.
    • Anfíbios anuros de lagoas da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná.

      Affonso, Igor de Paiva (Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Departamento de Biologia. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquáticos Continentais., 2012)
      This study was conducted in adjacent ponds from three major rivers in the upper Paraná River floodplain in order to verify the influence of connectivity on the spatial variability of anuran assemblages. We sampled three permanently connected ponds and three seasonally connected ponds to rivers Ivinhema, Bahia and Paraná, where transects were done through 1 hour transects to identify and count amphibians in calling activity. We used a multivariate method of beta diversity to test the spatial variability of the assemblages of amphibians. Were found 24 species distributed in five families: Bufonidae (1); Hylidae (13); Leuiperidae (3); Leptodactylidae (6) and Microhylidae (1). There was a difference in species richness and abundance both between lakes with and without connection with rivers and among the river systems. The difference between the spatial variability of assemblages was significant, so that lakes permanently connected with the rivers have greater variability in relation to seasonally connected lagoons. Thus, this study suggests that the connectivity of the lakes with the rivers appears to be a characteristic that influences the occurrence of amphibians.
    • Anfíbios e peixes são indicadores de diferentes hotpoints de biodiversidade na Mata Atlântica.

      Covre, Amanda Caroline (Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Departamento de Biologia. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquáticos Continentais., 2019)
      The identification of consistent patterns of biodiversity that can be used to guide conservation actions has become one of the main objectives of Ecology. Therefore, the use of surrogate groups has highlighted in recent years. This approach is based on the assumption that the protection of a given taxon guarantees the safety of others in similar conditions, requiring less effort and /or financial investment. Its use is only feasible when the groups evaluated have high values of cross-taxon congruence and depends on the choice of well-known species, widely distributed and easily monitored. Considering that the presence of areas with high cross-taxon congruence between terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity has already been observed in tropical regions, it is possible for fish and amphibians to constitute good substitutes between them in the Atlantic Forest biome. Thus, we used geographic distribution data from bony fishes and amphibian species, as well as their functional characteristics throughout the biome, in order to evaluate the existence of cross-taxon congruence patterns and to identify if they are biodiversity surrogates. In this way we used spatial, morphological and ecological data were obtained from ichthyofauna and amphibiofauna for niche modelling of richness species and functional diversity, we used databases and bibliographical references; species presence / absence matrices were constructed; the functional diversity was calculated for the groups and the correlation between the values of richness and functional diversity of fish and amphibians was made through simple linear regressions. From the results it was verified that the highest values of fish richness and functional diversity are concentrated in the West Atlantic Forest, while those values for amphibians are located in the East. The regions of Serra do Mar and south of the Central Corridor were the only points that presented overlap between the groups. In this way, the obtained results offer valuable information that must be considered by the competent organs, responsible for the elaboration of strategies and plans of conservation and management of species.
    • Aninhamento da metacomunidade de invertebrados bentônicos em áreas alagáveis Neotropicais.

      Pinha, Gisele Daiane (Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Departamento de Biologia. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquáticos Continentais., 2016)
      On the metacommunity context, the distribution pattern known as species nestedness is highlighted from others because it is commonly observed for the most diverse biological communities. Three different ways to link the nested distribution pattern of invertebrates metacommunity in relation to the most important environmental conditions for the assembly of this group in flooding sites were applied. We compared the nestedness of benthic invertebrates metacommunity in multiple sites in relation to variances found in the environmental heterogeneity of two different hydrological periods. We reported the importance of Chironomidae metacommunity nestedness to the environmental conservation in long-term researches, comparing this distribution pattern to variations in the fluviometric levels. We compared the functional responses of lacustrine species in relation to variances in the environmental similarity promoted by flood and drought events. The level of habitat heterogeneity from the floodplain was highly dependent with fluviometric level, i.e., it was temporally dynamic and, moreover, it was important to predict the nestedness level of a metacommunity. The variations in both habitat heterogeneity and fluviometric levels, were able to change not only the taxonomic composition of Chironomidae metacommunity but also to change the functional structure and the abundance relationships of this group. Nestedness was not a good measure to evaluate changes in the community structure when we considered the high organization level. We were able to detect environmental gradients where different habitats encompassed the highest species richness. The results raise the nestedness importance as a tool for environmental conservation and highlight the importance of maintenance of different habitats in a floodplain through time.