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  • Успехи в производстве холодных маринадов из мелкой рыбы.

    Gutschow, W. (1975)
    The production of cold fish marinades from small fish has been analysed from the standpoint of the dictates of the national economy. Reasons for a partly low productivity in individual sections of the production are described. From that the basic technological scheme for marinating sprats in their consumption packaging is explained on this basis and attention is drawn to the fact that efficient machines, devices and instruments for the actual performance of this method of marinating have been developed in the DDR or have been imported from the Soviet Union and other countries of the CMEA. Although these alone permit considerable rates of increase reference is made to the importance of packaging as a still unused source for raising productivity and it is shown that the packaging can also be utilized universally for a wide range of products when optimized in form and size.
  • К биологии запасов и развитию промысла весенней сельди в бассейне вокруг о. Рюген.

    Rechlin, O.; Friess, C.C. (1975)
    The spring herring of Rügen forms the most important basis for the catches attained in our herring fisheries in the Baltic. Since the end of the sixties this stock has yielded, with increasing fishery effort, an increasing catch every year not only in the trawl fishery but also in fisheries using passive fishing gear. Good fishing conditions and the increased number of old fish are the reasons for this catch development. At present, no sudden decrease of the catch is to be expected. It can safely be assumed that the catches will decline when the temperatures in winter are average and when size of the stock continually decrease. A similar development due to a considerable increase in fishing effort cannot be precluded either.
  • Исследования по биологии шпрота (Sprattus sprattus L.) и по развитию промысла шпрота в восточной и северной Балтике.

    Rechlin, O. (1975)
    The main object of this paper is the pelagic sprat stock of the open Gotland Sea. Meristic characteristics, growth and age composition of this stock have been compared with characteristics of other stocks. Ecological observations and the development of fisheries were studied as related fields. The relatively great mean age is an important characteristic of the sprat in the open Gotland Sea. According to these surveys, the Gotland Sea is a reservoir of old age groups of sprat from the Baltic proper. This result is of great significance for judging stock size and exploitation.
  • К вопросу об использовании балтийской сельди для производства пресервов в условиях промысла.

    Plorinya, A.P.; Pechatina, V.I.; Shlimovich, B.I. (1975)
    In this contribution some remarks are made on the technology of the production of preserves from "Herring-special salted for canning" and on the results of surveys on the technological characteristics of Baltic herring as well as on the effects of the duration and conditions of storage of the raw material consisting of Baltic herring from spring catches on the quality of preserves. Biochemical characteristic and an organoleptic estimation of preserves produced of Baltic herring are described. In addition, the results of investigations on the regulation of the maturing process and on the exact definition of the duration of storage are given for preserves made of Baltic herring from spring catches.
  • О технологических свойствах балтийской кильки и сроках хранения ее в мороженом виде.

    Pechatina, V.I.; Mihailova, V.E.; Krasjuk, G.I. (1975)
    In this contribution, the results of investigations on the technological properties of the Baltic sprat as the raw material and its seasonal alterations are given. Material from investigations on the determination of the effects of different factors are presented, i.e. of the physiological state, of the chemical composition, of fermentative activity of the fish, of the composition and the level of saturation of fat and some other facts which have an influence on the quality and the duration of storage of frozen products. Furthermore, values for the determination of carotinoids in the non-saponifiable part of the fat and for the detection of its nature are stated together with values for determining the relative oxidizing ability of fat obtained from sprat caught during various seasons. A complex of biochemical and physical characteristics were applied for assessing the quality of frozen fish during storage and these characteristics permitted assessment of the denatured alterations of the protein in the muscles and alterations in the dynamics of the oxidization process of the fat. Scientifically founded values are stated for the storing time of frozen sprat.
  • Травмирование и выживаемость балтийской сельди, прошедшей сквозь ячею кутка трала.

    Trescev, A.I.; Efanov, S.F.; Shevtsov, S.E.; Kljavsons, Ju.A. (1975)
    In the years 1973 and 1974 a complex of investigations was conducted on the degree of injury and the chances of survival of Baltic herring after penetrating the meshes of the codends. The degree of injury was studied under real trawl fishery conditions by applying biochemical analytic methods. The chances of survival were studied on test and control fishes (which did not penetrate the meshes of the net) in cages and also after the return of tagged fish. It was found that the mortality caused by injuries does not surmount 3 percent; the remaining fishes are viable.
  • Селективность кутков тралов на промысле балтийской сельди.

    Trescev, A.I.; Shevtsov, S.E. (1975)
    Research was conducted on the selectivity of trawls for Baltic herring in the Baltic and in the Riga Bay during the period from 1971 to 1974. The methods recommended by ICES have been applied. It was found that an increase in the mesh size of the cod-ends from 24 to 36 mm in the Riga Bay and from 32 to 40 mm in the Baltic increases the selectivity of herring trawls significantly. Relations are defined between the proportion of by-catch consisting of small fish, the modal value of the length distribution and the stock of the exploited population. The dependence-relations found can be applied to the calculation of minimum mesh sizes for the cod-ends which will meet the requirements of international fishery regulations.
  • Оценка состояния эксплуатации запасов речной камбалы в восточной и северо-восточной Балтике и необходимые меры по регулированию ее промысла.

    Vitinsh, M.Ya.; Hozioskij, S.A.; Lishev, M.N. (1975)
    The flounder catch has not increased substantially during the last 15 years. Nevertheless, the catch is at a relatively high level, to judge from the biological characteristics of the catches. In order to estimate the level of exploitation of the populations, mortality and growth parameters for the flounder in the eastern part of the Baltic and in the Finland Bay have been determined for the period from 1969 to 1974 by tagging data and biological characteristics using formula from Beverton and Holt, Ricker, Bertalanffy and the Walford-table. The different methods of calculation yielded congruent results. The mortality of mature fish from the East Gotland population was characterized as follows: Z = 0,75, F = 0,45, M = 0,30, the mortality of mature fish from the Finland Bay population was characterized as Z = 0,75, E = 0,40, M = 0,35. The following values have been established for the growth of the East Gotland population: L = 36,5 . . . 38,7 cm, K = 0,19 ... 0,20, W = 629 g, K = 0,17, for the Finland Bay population: L = 29 cm, K = 0,34. The curves according to Beverton and Holt drawn up on the basis of these parameters show that the fishing intensity on flounder stocks in the eastern part of the Baltic (subarea 28) is at the optimal level and that F has to be stabilized in this area by limiting the catch volume. In the north-eastern part of the Baltic (subarea 32) fishing mortality is at a near-optimum level and a certain increase in the catch is possible. The parameters and biological characteristics of the flounder population show good reasons for the following measures for regulating catches in the subareas 28, 29 and 32 (for each area separately): Prohibition of fishing from 1 February to 31 May, dito, from 1 February to 30 June; minimum length (total length) — 21 cm, 18 cm, 18 cm; minimum mesh size — 80 mm, 70 mm, 70 mm. By-catch of young fish has to be returned.
  • О запасах кильки и их использовании в северной и восточной Балтике.

    Veldre, I.R.; Polivaiko, A.G. (1975)
    This paper deals with the results of investigations on the condition and exploitation of sprat stocks in the northern and eastern areas of the Baltic during the period from 1957 to 1974. The age structure of the Baltic sprat stocks surveys can best be determined by means of overwintering concentrations in which all age groups are concentrated except the one year old sprats which remain at depths of 40 to 50 m in winter. The relative abundances of the individual year classes was determined by the per-cent composition of catches. The relative strength of the sprat stocks (in indices) in the northern areas of the Baltic was determined for the period from 1960 to 1974 on the basis of the relative numbers of the year classes, the mean percentile part of the age groups in the catches (which show the mortality) and the mean weight of the fish in the age groups (maximum of occurrence — in the season 1960—61, minimum of occurrence in the period 1967—68). These indices were also used for the prediction of state and age structure of the sprat stocks for 1975 and 1976. The mortality of the sprat was insignificant in the northern areas during the period from 1960 to 1974 (total mortality 0,3 to 0,4; natural mortality 0,1). This fact can be explained, by the occurrence of a succession of productive year classes (1955, 1957 and 1959) and by a reduction in the cod abundance in these areas due to unfavourable hydrological conditions. The intensity of the exploitation of sprats has increased continually during the last decade and has reached its optimum or even the maximum in the northern and eastern areas of the Baltic as shown in the catch graphs (Beverton. 1973). Therefore it is necessary to regulate the exploitation of sprats in the whole area of the Baltic (limitation of the fishing intensity, introduction of minimum sizes for sprat).
  • Состояние запасов и степень эксплуатации сельди восточного побережья Балтийского моря.

    Ojaveer, E.A.; Evtjukhova, B. K.; Naglis, A.K. (1975)
    This paper deals with data on the herring fishery in subareas 28, 29, 32 and, to a lesser extent, in subarea 28 of the Baltic classified according to season, years and periods covering several years. It is shown that the volume of herring catches has increased due to intensification of the fisheries and extention of the fishing grounds. At the same time, a decrease in the catches per unit effort has been observed as a result of the decline in the herring stocks. The decline in the stocks in recent years is due to the fact that, in comparison to previous years, younger year classes have predominated and that the influence of trawl fishery on cod, the stocks of which increased in 1966, has increased. The herring stocks increased in the Wisla Bay in recent years due to the addition of mature year classes. The structure of the herring stocks is investigated according to populations and areas. It has been proved that the level of exploitation of the herring stocks has recently reached its optimum in the subareas 28, 29 and 23 and that a further increase in fishing intensity will lead to economically and biologically irrational exploitation. Measures which have been introduced in the Soviet Union for the protection and enlargement of herring stocks are stated.
  • Состав, состояние и эксплуатация запаса балтийской трески и ее значение в пищевых цепях.

    Lablaika, I.A.; Lishev, M.N.; Uzars, D.V.; Hozioskij, S.A. (1975)
    On the basis of investigations on the dynamics of the productivity of year classes within the yields and of growth, mortality, distribution of cod in the eastern Baltic and the dynamics of total cod catches and catches per unit effort, the structure and state of the cod stocks have been estimated and natural and the fishing mortality (M = 0,3-0,4; F = 0,5-0,7) and growth constants Lg = 99-120 cm, K = 0,11-0,146) have been determined. The estimation of the level of exploitation shows that fishing intensity lies within or near the limits of the optimum range. It is shown that regulation of the minimum, length and regulation of the percentage of young fish as by-catch can be of considerable practical use. The absolute cod resources in the eastern Baltic as well as the amount of food taken in are determined and it is shown that cod form a significant factor in the natural mortality of herring and sprat.
  • Газохроматографическое исследование фенольного состава консервов «Шпроты в масле».

    Kolonistova, I.V.; Pechatina, V.I.; Plorinya, A.P.; Kirshbaum, I.Z. (1976)
    The data on phenol composition of canned fish and smoke standards are given in the article; the influence of smoke on product quality and the correlation of organoleptical indices of the product with qualitative composition of phenol fraction are shown. 18 components of phenol fraction of smoke and smoked production are identificated. It is shown, that some components of phenol fraction take part in forming the odour of smoked production. Smoking conditions and technological peculariarities of smoke influence decisively upon the penetration of smoke components into the product.
  • Оценка качества консервов «Шпроты в масле».

    Krasjuk, G.I.; Pechatina, V.I.; Kolonistova, I.V.; Laukhina, E.P. (1976)
    The results of investigations of canned fish "Sprats in Oil" quality are given in the article. The complex of physical and chemical analyses as well as the system of mark estimation were used together with organoleptic indices at the estimation of product quality. The materials on the investigations of qualitative and quantitative composition of phenol fraction and their correlation with organoleptic estimation of the product are presented. Some objective indices of quality estimation of the given kind of canned fish are offered.
  • Селективные свойства кутков донных тралов на промысле балтийской трески.

    Shevtsov, S.E. (1976)
    In 1972-1975 selectivity properties of bottom trawl codend with the mesh size 80 and 90 mm were investigated in the eastern areas of the Baltic Sea. The methods recommended by ICES (external small mesh coverings) were used. It was determined that codends made of capron (polyamid A) with the mesh size 90 mm correspond to the draft of International Fishery Regulations. Connections between the percentage (by number) of non-commercial fish by-catch (L 30.0 cm), the mode of fishery lenght (L max) and non-commercial fish abundance (Nm) in the exploited stock, which may be used for the calculation of minimum permissible sizes of meshes in condend, which meet the requirements of International Fishery Regulations, were revealed.
  • Некоторые закономерности распределения и миграций речной камбалы в восточной и северо-восточной Балтике.

    Vitinsh, M.Ya. (1976)
    The characteristics of main flounder populations, fish distribution pattern within the area of population and relations between separate populations were obtained from tagging. During the period from 1967 to 1975 24 098 flounder were tagged by yellow and orange plastic label tags, attached by nichrome wire, and 4 949 fish returned. The dislocation parameters of centers of density of the returns were investigated by Jones method. The locality of the largest flounder populations is conditioned by increased food supply in these areas. Inhabiting by young flounder the areas abundant with food but practically inaccessible for the adult part of the population because of great distance from wintering and spawning grounds is shown on the example of the Gulf of Riga. Seasonal distribution and migrations of fish within the population area in different years are rather constant. Females show higher dispersion in the feeding area than males. The transition of flounder to the areas of other populations takes place during spawning migrations and is stimulated by worsening of oxygen conditions on spawning grounds. The ability of flounder for long pelagic migrations high above the bottom and for homing was experimentally confirmed.
  • О локальности стад балтийского шпрота.

    Polivaiko, A.G. (1976)
    The results of work on the studies of Baltic sprat stocks locality and migrations during the spawning period on the base of morphometric analysis are given. It was determined, that three populations are clearly distinguished in the Baltic Sea: Gotland, Gdansk and Eland (Swedish). Bornholm population is not apparent. If it exists, it is very negligible. The spawning stock in Bornholm area is mainly represented by elder fish migrants from Gotland and Eland areas.
  • Зависимость распределения кильки и салаки от условий зимовки в восточной и северной частях Балтийского моря.

    Ojaveer, E.A.; Kaleis, M.V.; Veldre, I.R. (1976)
    Wintering conditions of Baltic herring and sprat in different areas of middle and northern parts of the Baltic Sea during various according to thermal regime winters are compared. It is supposed, that wintering conditions determine relative abundance of these species in northern sea areas.
  • Управление и рациональное использование биологических ресурсов Балтийского моря.

    Polyakov, M.P.; Shlimovich, B.I. (1976)
    The article presents the experience of the USSR in fisheries management in the Baltic Sea and the results of cooperation of the Baltic countries in the study, protection, reproduction and use of fish stocks. The goals and possible ways of developing international cooperation in planning and implementation of fisheries research in the Baltic are shown.
  • О связи некоторых гидрологических факторов с распределением нагульных скоплений сельди в южной Балтике.

    Fetter, M.E. (1976)
    Some relations between the distribution of temperature, salinity and oxygen in Bornholm area and the distribution of feeding herring concentrations in July - August 1975 are considered in the article. It is shown, that vertical distribution of herring shoals at night is determined by thermocline position, and a day time - by oxygen 1 ml/l. The most dense and steady concentrations are formed on the slopes of the deep, where deep water rise takes place and favorable conditions for fish forage reserve development are formed.
  • Материалы по акклиматизации горбуши в бассейне Балтийского моря.

    Rimsh, E.Ya.; Ivanova, G.T. (1978)
    The experimental works on pink salmon acclimatization began in 1972. Yearly pink salmon egg at "eye" stage was being brought from Sakhalin hatcheries and put into Atkins type hatching apparatus, installed at salmon hatcheries of the Latvian SSR for final incubation. The duration of final incubation stage of egg made up 35-45 days. The mass hatch of pink salmon pro-larvae was observed in observed in the middle of December. The resting stage of pro-larvae lasted 3—4 months: at hatcheries with a spring source of water supply it formed 86-95 days, at the hatcheries with a river source of water-supply 109-122 days. On the whole the first stages of pink salmon life (embryonic and postembryonic periods of development) were quite successful. Pink salmon fry was released into Latvian rivers with a batch from 170 to 420 mg. The dates of release were different. The best results were obtained, when pink salmon fingerling release was carried out at the end of April. The growth rate of pink salmon in the sea period of life is high. Pink salmon length-weight data in a new and natural areal are similar. Pink salmon survival in the sea period of life is low. The coefficient of the return (registered) fluctuated from 0,005 to 0,4 % in the time of researches from 1974 to 1976.

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