Recent Submissions

  • Mechanization of processes of water organisms processing

    Borisov, L.A.; Gubanov, E.P. (1997)
    Works of the YugNIRO mechanization laboratory aimed at the development of the technical devices for aquaculture and for processing of the marine species was described. It was mentioned that many experimental models and prototypes were produced by the laboratory, a part of which was described in details in the article.
  • Main results of studies of pelagic resources in the Azov and Black Seas

    Chashchin, A.K.; Gubanov, E.P. (1997)
    The basic long-term information concerning pelagic fish abundance (biomass) as well as seasonal and interannual dynamics of abundance indices has been collected in fisheries surveys using standard fishing gear. YugNIRO has developed most appropriate fishing gear and determined the optimal time and seasons for surveys of each group of species. Principal results of research were implemented into the practice of fisheries and management starting from early years of YugNIRO activity (1920-1930s). In the pre-World War II period purse seine fisheries for Azov Sea population of European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus was developed in the Kerch strait only; after the war owing to YugNIRO data on areas and environmental conditions of wintering of this population of anchovy in the Black Sea the fishing fleet expanded greatly the zone of operation. Research of the Black Sea population of anchovy revealed the biggest anchovy stocks in the area. It gave a jump for the development of purse seine fleet capable to carry fishing operations at the great distance from the home ports. The important contribution of scientists to the rational exploitation of fish resources in the area was the development of the scientific advice for trawl fishing of Black Sea sprat Sprattus sprattus. By early 1970s the first signs of degradation of pelagic biocenosis structure were recorded despite general trend of increasing of total catch of pelagic fish. First of all were recorded sharp decrease in the catches of large pelagic predators: bonito Sarda sarda, mackerel Scomber scombrus, large jack mackerel Trachurus mediterraneus, bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix. YugNIRO research of the population structure of the Black and Azov Sea anchovy populations made possible to outline this species migration pattern as well as elaborate morphological, genetic and parasitological criteria for the stock identification by aggregations at fishing grounds. Anchovy fisheries developed within the winter borders were regulated for optimal distribution of fishing efforts among two stocks. In the same time were introduced acoustic surveys for estimates of anchovy biomass in wintering aggregations in the Black Sea which increased greatly precision of stock assessments. The average level of the biomass of Black Sea anchovy stock in 1970-1980s was about 750000 tons, and its biomass in the waters adjacent to Georgia was 309000 tons in average. Observed twice in 1985 and in 1989-90 sharp declines in the catch of Black Sea anchovy are the consequences of the overfishing by common efforts of the USSR and Turkey that in previous years yielded about 500000 tons (up to 60% of the stock). The recent decrease of anchovy catches was related with outburst of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi. This introduced species are food competitor for pelagic species and even predator for eggs and larvae of pelagic fishes. Among the pelagic fishes of Azov Sea the tyulka Clupeonella cultriventris suffered most greatly, as obligatory zooplankton-feeder. In the Black Seas sprat S. sprattus are the only reliable reserve for the fisheries among pelagic species. In some years sprat biomass in the aggregations estimated in acoustic surveys reached 600,000 tons. The total stock biomass is considerably higher. For recent years the level of the sprat exploitation decreased due to fishing fleet shrinking. Published information about the serious negative impact of ctenophore Mnemiopsis on the sprat population is an erroneous interpretation of the data on decreasing catch. Sprat is winter-spawner and reproduces at temperature that is not suitable for the ctenophore. The maximum food consumption is observed for the sprat in spring when the ctenophore biomass is low, in summer sprat moves to the near-bottom strata of the sea where ctenophore does not penetrate mainly.
  • Results of YugNIRO long-term fisheries studies on stock assessment and parameters of fish population in the near-bottom complex in the Black and Azov Seas

    Shlyakhov, V.A.; Gubanov, E.P. (1997)
    Long-term quantitative estimates of the population parameters and stock biomass for the most important commercial bottom-dwelling fish of the Azov and Black Seas are presented basing on YugNIRO (till 1989 AzCherNIRO) fisheries research for the last 25-30 years. Biomass estimated are presented for sturgeons (Russian sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii, starry sturgeon A. stellatus, and beluga Huso huso), flatfishes (Black Sea and Azov Sea populations of turbot Psetta maxima and flounder Platichthys flesus, Red mullet Mullus barbatus, grey mullets (golden grey mullet Liza aurata, flathead grey mullet Mugil cephalus, leaping mullet Liza saliens, and haarder Mugil soiuy), spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias, rays (thornback ray Raja clavata and common stingray Dasyatis pastinaca), Black Sea whiting Merlangius merlangus, pike-perch Stizostedion lucioperca, and round goby Neogobius melanostomus. Parameters of von Bertalanffy growth equations for several species are presented also. In accordance with current level of fisheries exploitation (taking into account the poaching and non-reported catches) the stocks of the bottom fish near the Ukrainian coast can be divided into three groups: 1) non-exploited species (spiny dogfish, rays, whiting), 2) underexploited species (pike-perch, Black Sea turbot, haarder, red mullet), 3) highly exploited species (sturgeons, Azov Sea turbot, flounder of Sivash Gulf). The fish populations in the depleted state (Azov Sea gobies, native mullets) should be considered as separate group.
  • Results of YugNIRO studies of fish resources in the Indian and Southern Oceans

    Budnichenko, V.A.; Gubanov, E.P.; Demidov, V.F.; Ivanin, N.A.; Romanov, A.V.; Romanov, E.V.; Pinchukov, M.A.; Piotrovsky, A.S.; Prutko, V.G.; Gubanov, E.P. (1997)
    History of YugNIRO research of biological resources in the Indian and Southern Ocean was reviewed. It was mentioned that during 1961-1991 in the expeditions of YugNIRO and corporation Yugrybpoisk there were made about 12000 trawl hauls in more than 115 trawl surveys in the area of the Indian Ocean except its Antarctic part. The analysis of the collected data combined with the data of the complex oceanological research allowed to understand the specific features of Indian Ocean productivity and its fisheries potential. Indian Ocean was divided into three zones: oligotrophic, mesotrophic, and eutrophic. Estimated fish biomass for each zone is presented. As a result of YugNIRO fisheries research in the epipelagic zone of the high seas of the Indian Ocean it was shown that the most promising species for commercial fishing would be tunas (Thunnus, and Katsuwonus genera), oceanic squids Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis, sharks, and Atlantic saury (Scomberesox saurus). The detailed trawl and echo sounding surveys of the continental slope near the Arabian coast (Gulf of Aden, Somalia, Oman coast) and Hindustan coast (in particular, north- and south-west of the area) as well as at the seamounts in the central part of the Arabian Sea (Murray Ridge) shows the absence of significant and stable commercial fish aggregations in most of the areas under survey. Deepwater areas of the Indian Ocean: the continental slope and thalassobathial located in the temperate zone have potential for the development of the fisheries. Moreover, as it was demonstrated with the example of the Southwest Indian Ridge, at several seamounts relatively small catches of fish are compensated by their high price and demand at the World market. In 1997 it was 30 years since the beginning of YugNIRO research in the Southern Ocean (its Indian and Atlantic sectors). There have been found the significant resources of the fish (Nototheniidae, Channichthyidae, Pleuragramma antarcticum) and Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) which were exploited by the former USSR fleet from 1967 till 1990.
  • Anthropogenic impacts on the Black Sea ecosystem (results of YugNIRO nature protective studies for the last decade)

    Bryantsev, V.A.; Litvinenko, N.M.; Sebakh, L.K.; Gubanov, E.P. (1997)
    YugNIRO studies of anthropogenic impact onto Black Sea marine environments shows that pollution with coastal outflows and ground dumping has a negative impact within 10 miles width coastal area. The highest contamination within Ukrainian coast is recorded in the north-western part of the sea: in Odessa Bay, in the ports of Yuzhnyj and Ochakov, in Karkinitskyj Bay, as well as in the ports of the Kerch Peninsula (Crimea). For recent years the decreasing in concentration of chlorine organic pesticides and heavy metals has been observed. There were no changes recorded in the concentration of oil hydrocarbons, detergents and phenols in the bottom sediments and in the water. It was found that the mass death of mussels and significant transformation of bottom biocenosis at the north-western shelf of the Black Sea are induced by the increased since mid 1970-ies oxygen depletion and hypoxia phenomena. The dynamics of the bottom communities status in the period since 1977 till 1992 is presented. The changes in the Black Sea phyto- and zooplankton biomass as well as in abundance of European sprat (Sprattus sprattus) correlated with irrevocable water consumption can be explained with the increased water eutrophication that may be treated as additional indirect indicators of raising of the main picnocline and the border of the hydrogen-sulphide zone due to the anthropogenic irrevocable water consumption and seasonal re-distribution of the river inflow.
  • 75 years of marine fisheries science of Ukraine

    Gubanov, E.P.; Serobaba, I.I.; Gubanov, E.P. (1997)
    History of fisheries research carried out by Southern Scientific Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography (YugNIRO) for the 75 years from 1922 till 1997 is presented. Special attention was paid for historical description of activity of scientists who contributed greatly into research.
  • YugNIRO and fisheries science

    Shvedenko, N.N.; Gubanov, E.P. (1997)
    The history and development of the fisheries in the Black and Azov Seas as well as in the World Ocean are reviewed. The role of YugNIRO, which celebrated its 75th anniversary in 1997, was determined in the sphere of aquatic sciences. The main outcomes of the institution are summorized; principal technological developments and aquaculture techniques progress are described.
  • Biologically active matters of water organisms in the Black and Azov Seas and new trends in their investigations

    Gubanova, A.G.; Simonova, L.I.; Turchaninova, L.I.; Bityutskaya, O.E.; Christoferzen, G.S.; Borisova, L.P.; Gubanov, E.P. (1997)
    Practical interest for the biologically active compounds (BAC) in Ukraine was greatly increased after the Chernobyl disaster especially. YugNIRO was involved in the solution of the problem of improving of the health of Ukrainian population by means of development of new medicinal and prophylactic food additives from aquatic organisms 6 years ago. In the institute were developed several food additives: a Bipolana food additive from Mediterranean mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis of halena-type of wide action range; the new food additive is extracted from the rapa whelk Rapana venosa. Active glycoprotein complexes of rapa whelk liver and gonads with immune-modulating and surfactant action. On the basis of the oil extracted from the spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias liver there was produced aKatranola which contains biologically active vitamin A and polyunsaturated fatty acids. There was developed the technique of extraction of bio-glucans of mussels and rapa whelk with immune-modulating, antioxidant and anti-A and anti-B activity. On the basis of spirulina Spirulina platensis food additives which increased protective features of the human organism were developed.
  • Main results of YugNIRO studies in the sphere of mariculture

    Kulikova, N.I.; Zolotnitsky, A.P.; Solodovnikov, A.A.; Gubanov, E.P. (1997)
    Historical review of YugNIRO research for the development of biotechnology of artificial reproduction and aquaculture for local and introduced fish and shellfish species: mullets (local species, golden grey mullet Liza aurata, flathead grey mullet Mugil cephalus, leaping mullet Liza saliens, and introduced Pacific mullet, haarder Mugil soiuy), flatfishes (turbot Psetta maxima and flounder Platichthys flesus, steelhead salmon Oncorhynchus mykiss, striped bass Morone saxatilis, Mediterranean mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis, oysters (Ostrea edulis, Crassostrea gigas), and microalgae are presented.
  • Основные результаты комплексных исследований ЮгНИРО в Азово-Черноморском бассейне и Мировом океане (Юбилейный выпуск)

    Gubanov, E.P.; Southern Scientific Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography (YugNIRO) (YugNIROKerch, Crimea, Ukraine, 1997)
    Results of YugNIRO complex studies in main trends of activities are given in the historical aspect. Outlook for development of fisheries industry is regarded.