Recent Submissions

  • Assessment of distribution and migration ways of heavy metals in the Karkinitsky Bay ecosystem

    Pankratova, T.M.; Sebakh, L.K.; Finkelstein, M.S.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1994)
    In 1989-1993, YugNIRO carried out investigations of the impact of undersea exploratory drilling on the ecosystem of Karkinit Bay, Crimea (Ukraine) and the adjacent shelf areas of the north-western Black Sea. Karkinit Bay and adjacent shelf zone of the Black Sea are home for wintering aggregations of sturgeons, feeding area for juvenile and adult mullets, a permanent residence for juvenile turbot, whiting, sprat. In the southern part of Karkinit Bay dense (up to 1100 g/m super(2)) mussel beds still exist, which has age composition characteristic for a virgin population. All stages of exploration on the gas bearing formation were controlled: before and during the building of the marine stationary platform, exploratory drilling and shut-in storage period, and upon completion of the assessment of the particular gas resource. During the exploratory drilling period, the levels of heavy metals (copper, lead, nickel, and cadmium) in the seabed sediments were below the maximum permissible concentrations (MPC), while the levels of mercury and chromium surpassed MPCs at individual stations by 2 and 27 times (0.17 and 27.8 mg/l, respectively). Following completion of the exploratory drilling, mercury concentrations varied from 0.14 to 0.23 mg/l and everywhere exceeded MPCs as a result of a secondary contamination of water; chromium levels dropped and varied within MPC, reaching 1.9 MPC or 1.9 mg/l at individual stations. In the seabed sediments within the region of the Marine Stationary platform, accumulation of copper, lead, and chromium was observed; during the final drilling stage, their average concentrations increased to 14.4 (copper), 6.9 (lead), 14.6 (chromium) mg/g dry weight. The highest concentrations of these metals surpassed geochemical background by factors of 4-5, 62, and 8, respectively. The spatial distribution of toxic metals with a radius of 0.1-mile distance from the exploratory well. Following completion of the exploratory drilling and related operations, a stabilisation of the ecosystem and substantial decrease in the levels of toxic metals both in the water and in the sediment upper layer were recorded.
  • Concept of organization of sub-system 'Marine living resources'.

    Trotsenko, B.G.; Yakovlev, V.N.; Kokoz, L.M.; Pronenko, S.M.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1994)
    At present, Ukraine lacks a unified information storage and retrieval system to render informational support to marine and oceanic research and management studies. There is an urgent need for setting up a State oceanological information system (SOIS) and for organising information exchange; there is also a need for legal regulation of information exchange between information holders both at the national and international levels. A network of national specialised data centres whose creation is now underway in such fields as oceanography, living marine resources, non-living resources and marine pollution, will form the basis for SOIS. The 'Marine Living Resources' information subsystem will ensure the automatic solution, at the national level of the following main tasks: 1) integrated research on the state of bioresources and their habitats in the World Ocean; 2) real-time monitoring of the state of marine environment and marine living resources, at first in the Azov-Black Sea region and later on throughout the World Ocean; 3) interrelated continuous forecasting (prognostic monitoring) of both marine environment and marine living resources; 4) establishment and management of regional databases on marine living resources; 5) model development at ecosystem level; 6) modernisation and adaptation of the existing functional problems on information processing and analysis; 7) analysis of marine living resources exploitation levels; 8) development of optimal exploitation strategy for various regions of the World Ocean (managing stocks in a sustainable manner and conserving stability of biocenoses); 9) development of ecological disaster warning system for individual region threatened by natural degradation and anthropogenic pressure; 10) elaboration of measures on conservation and reproduction of bioresources; 11) elaboration of tactics and strategy of Ukraine's fishery development. Technical framework is proposed basing on local area computer networks, and communication channels that link Datacentres into the SOIS.
  • Mechanization of mussel processing

    Borisov, L.A.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1994)
    A mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis processing line was developed in 1993, incorporating the equipment to produce both protein-carbohydrate concentrate and cooked mussel meat. The processing line incorporates the following equipment, developed and made in YugNIRO: washing machine, internal valve fluid remover, mussel crusher, fermenter, vacuum evaporator (as a heat carrier glycerine is used), take-away and delivery conveyors, centrifuge, coolers, washers, sterilisers, mussel container turn-over device, feed hopper, dosing feed bin, basket loading and unloading device. The productive capacity of the line is 1 t/hour.
  • Updated technology of output of new types of products from fish and non-fish species of water origin

    Yakovleva, Z.A.; Zubchenko, D.G.; Dosycheva, I.V.; Busova, A.I.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1994)
    Recent YugNIRO studies on fish, mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis, and the sea snail Rapana thomasiana processing revealed that bouillons originating in the processing of these raw animal materials could be used as an additional source for food production. New seafoods were developed in 1992, based on concentrated by evaporation bouillons: dried and roasted cracker, mussel-based and fish-based cream-sauces, preserves with a white-pink sauce which stems from cream-sauces. Three kinds of mussel meat preserves have been developed with a mayonnaise-type cream-sauce: 'Mussel with white cream-sauce', 'Mussel with white-pink cream-sauce', 'Mussel with mustard cream-sauce'. Improved technology of these new foods from fish, mussel and rapana considerably simplifies the processing.
  • Characteristic of bacterial communities associated with mollusc biodeposits

    Puchenkova, S.G.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1994)
    Quantitative and qualitative composition of the bacterioflora of biosediments produced by mussels and oysters were studied in the southern Kerch Strait, area of potential experimental and commercial culture of molluscs. Sampling was made from May to October 1993. A total of 45 various groups of microorganisms were determined and 50 pure bacterial cultures were isolated. On the basis of research into morphological, tinctorial, cultural and physiological and biochemical properties of the isolated strains, they were identified to species or genus level. Of 22 isolated strains of the enteric bacilli group, Escherichia coli accounted for 9.1%, Enterobacter agglomerans, 50%, Citrobacter freundii, 27.3%, C. diversus, 9.1%, C. amalonaticus 4.5%. Among enterococci, mainly Enterococcus faecium were determined, E. faecalis accounting for from 8 to 25% of the enterococci group. Bacteria of the genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Vibrio, and a proteolytic biovariety of enterococcus were most active hydrolase producers. Among aerobic bacteria, Bacillus cereus were identified; anaerobic bacteria were represented mainly by Clostridium perfringens.
  • Mussel growth in the Donuzlav Lake

    Vizhevsky, V.I.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1994)
    Lake Donuzlav (Crimea, Ukraine) is a closed narrow arm of the Black Sea 27 km long located in the southwestern Kerch Peninsula. Its hydrologicul regime differs in many respects from the adjacent coastal areas, thus determining the peculiarities of the local mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis population and culture techniques. The triennial investigations showed annual recurrence of the main peculiarities of mussel growth by seasons, governed primarily by the temperature factor. The most intensive linear and weight growth rate in smaller groups occurred in April-May, whereas in seniors they were shifted to June-July. Mussel growth in Lake Donuzlav is primarily governed by the water temperature regime and also by the reproductive activity of the molluscs; the growth pattern can be described as a sequence of the annually recurrent cyclic periods of active growth, stunted growth, and termination of growth. Mussel growth rate in Lake Donuzlav is at its highest in the temperature range of 14 to 20 degree C; the lower temperature limit of growth is 5 degree C, the upper temperature limit is 25 degree C, which is 2 degree C higher than that in the Kerch Strait. During gonad maturation period the linear growth rate sharply slows down. Highest rates of linear and weight growth in mussels are observed at the early ontogenetic stages; they gradually slow down with age, whereas the body mass growth can even increase with age.
  • Some peculiarities in early ontogenesis in haarder from spawning stocks and natural populations

    Bulli, L.I.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1994)
    Artificial reproduction of the haarder (Mugil soiuy) in experimental farm at Budaki (Odessa region, Ukraine) during 1988-1989 and 1993 are described. Batches of ovulated and developing eggs from brood stocks and natural populations were investigated with regard to such indices as egg and fat drop diameters, egg moisture content, egg wet and dry masses, buoyancy, and development in water of various salinity. The haarder eggs were fertilisable in a fairly wide range of salinity, from 3-5 to 45 promille, but no fertilisation was possible in fresh water. At early cleavage stages, there was no essential variation in the percentage of embryos developing in waters of different salinity, it was 60-82% on an average. But already at the fine-cellular morule stage, the development of eggs in batches obtained from the brood-stock fish partially ceased in salinity below 20 or above 35 promille. Both with the salinity decrease from 20 to 5 promille and with its increase from 30 to 45 promille, the embryonic mortality increased at all stages of the embryonic development. The hatching of eggs was observed to occur only in salinity below 40 promille, and also above that corresponding to the threshold buoyancy which is different for every batch of eggs. The death of embryos developing on the pool bottom and stuck in the surface water film in 40-50 promille salinity is apparently caused by the failure to get oxygen. The state of suspension in the seawater is of crucial importance for normal development of the haarder eggs. The haarder eggs from natural spawners were larger in size and had high buoyancy; the latter due to the size of the fat drop and also due to the biochemical composition of lipids. There is no doubt that these differences are mainly due to the diet of fish from the brood-stock, grown on artificial feeds; the haarder is detrivorous in the wild.
  • High resolution in formation receiving station

    Chernyshov, I.V.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1994)
    A scheme of the high resolution information receiving station is developed aiming at receiving NOAA information from the AES (Atrificial Earth Satellite) in the HRPT regime. Software development for various ways of data processing is recommended. Stages of the information input are described.
  • Solution of the sum about the length of the curve of search for concentrations in the given area

    Kokoz, L.M.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1994)
    There were obtained formulas for assessment of probability of crossing of sub-sphere occupied by a commercial concentration of fishing target with curve of search, L as well as formulas for calculation of mathematical expectation of search route length. These results allow to calculate probability of fishing spot determination for each area and each hypothesis about size of fishing spot, including calculation of route length, ensuring sub-sphere finding if the hypothesis about its size is true.
  • Some aspects of modelling subject area of forecasting database

    Kokoz, L.M.; Sedelkina, T.G.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1994)
    Approaches of the creation of the subject sphere information model during databases developments are examined. The application of the 'essence' approach to the exposure of the structure and interaction for all the objects in the certain subject sphere is proposed. The ways of solving PC user problems while creating the system of research information support are discussed. Common methodology of the subject spheres description irrespective of their nature is emphasised. Triple category system ('object', 'property', and 'relation') is used to describe the subject sphere as a symbol model for fishery research. The approach suggested is the tool of creating accessible for every user and easily updated databases.
  • Experience of intensive rearing of micro-alga Spirulina platensis

    Gnatchenko, L.G.; Pisarevskaya, I.I.; Ivanyuta, A.P.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1994)
    Experiments of cultivation of micro-alga spirulina (Spirulins platencis) in YugNIRO, Kerch, Ukraine are described. Alga culture from Institute of Fisheries, (Burgas, Bulgaria) were used. The cultivation was carried out from May to October 1992 and 1993 in open plastic tanks with water surface from 1.2 m super(2) to 4m super(2). Aeration and mineral fertilisers were applied. Both in greenhouse and outdoor culture, temperature and intensity of illumination are major factors controlling the productivity of Spirulina. Productivity of Spirulina grown under different greenhouse conditions may be on the order of 0.1-0.3 g/dm super(3). In outdoor culture of Spirulina the highest growth of its biomass was recorded from a plastic pool 3.2 m super(2) in area, with 25 cm culture medium thickness. At temperatures below optimal for this species (16-27 degree C) the harvest over four days of cultivation was 15 g /m super(2). Over 15 days of continuous Spirulina culture in a greenhouse, the yield was, on an average, 5 g/m super(2) from an area of 20 m super(2). From plastic pools in the southern and western sides of the greenhouse the yield was up to 25 g/m super(2). In 1993, the productivity of this Spirulina species under greenhouse conditions ranged from 8.7 to 33.0 g/m super(2), with a mean value of 19.2 g /m super(2).
  • On the problem of feeding migration piscicultural farm at the Tobechik Lake

    Solodovnikov, A.A.; Semik, A.M.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1994)
    Some experience in using Lake Tobechik (Crimea, Ukraine) as a fish rearing and feeding ground is described. Lake Tobechik is the biggest coastal lagoon in the southeastern Kerch Peninsula of Crimea, with an area of 18.7 km super(2), separated from the sea by a barrier beach of sand 100 m wide. An average depth of water is 0.1 m with a maximum depth of 0.5 m. Water surface is considerably reduced in summer due to intensive evaporation. The water level in the lagoon is somewhat below sea level. The isolation from the sea lead to hyperhalinity of the lake, the salinity varying from 50 to 98-100 promille. The channel, 2.2 m deep was dug through the barrier beach into the lagoon in 1956. The depth of water increased to 1-1.5 m, and salinity decreased to 24-30 promille. Mullets (Mugil spp.) and horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus) juveniles invaded the lagoon. The maximum annual yield attained was 44.4 kg/ha. The low productivity of marine fish farming in Lake Tobechik resulted from the following causes: 1) low level of water exchange with the sea; 2) lack of external food supply, there was no fish feeding by man; 3) considerable losses of uncaught fish from exposure to low temperatures. Taking into account the previous experience in using Lake Tobechik as a fish rearing and feeding ground, a following conclusion was made: 1) to connect again the lagoon with the sea by a channel; 2) to built sluices in order to prevent escape of fish and regulate water level; 3) deepening the lakebed, providing wintering pits and build feeding platforms all around the lagoon; 4) equipping fishing places for drag seining. The production of fish will largely depend on rational feeding regime, the quantity and quality of artificial food.
  • About fecundity and forming of expenditures fund of sex cells of haarder Mugil so-iuy Basilewski

    Moiseeva, E.B.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1994)
    The haarder Mugil soiuy, a mullet native to the Pacific, has been successfully acclimatised in the Azov and Black Seas. The fecundity of fishes their ovarian development and formation were studied in the Azov Sea and the Kerch Strait in 1992-1993. The eggs maturation of haarder occurs during a comparatively short time interval (20-40 days), together with increasing of water temperature. The fate of the younger size group of oocytes during the spawning and post-spawning periods is not clear yet. It should be noted that histological studies of ovaries in maturity stages 2-3, 3 and 3-4 in fish caught in the spring showed the presence of degenerating sexual cells in many females. These cells were in late stages of the protoplasmic and in early stages of the trophoplasmic growth. The fecundity in female fish in maturity stages 3, 3-4 varies within the range of 819,000-3,174,000 eggs. The fecundity increases with the fish length and weight growth.
  • To the problem of production of viable juveniles of haarder from spawners from natural populations

    Fedulina, V.N.; Semik, A.M.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1994)
    YugNIRO scientists carried out research on production of larvae and fingerlings of the haarder Mugil soiyu in the Kerch Strait from May to July 1993. Comparison of the physiological state data for spawners from wild populations with those for breeding stocks from ponds in the northwestern Black Sea region shows high heterogeneity of the latter as to the degree of their maturity. Wild spawners were in better shape for reproduction, they had larger eggs, although variation in size composition of ovocytes was fairly high. The hypophysis from carp Cyprinus carpio was used for hormonal stimulation of haarder females. An effective dose of hypophysis to secure full ovulation was, on an average, 10-12 mg/kg body mass, with 2 to 3 days to riper. Haarder from wild population in the Kerch Straits were more sensitive to hormonal preparations than fish from pond-reared breeding stock. Of 28 females treated, 21 individuals had full ovulation. A total of 21 batches of haarder eggs were incubated. The eggs were stocked in culture tanks at a density of 70-110 eggs/l. At early fission stages, the survival rate considerably varied, ranging from 10 to 90% in different batches. A total of 800,000 larvae were produced from incubation, which accounted for 11.8% of the egg input.
  • Size-age composition of southern poutassou (Micromesistius australis) catches in New Zealand area

    Russelo, I.B.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1994)
    Length-age composition of catches of the Southern blue whiting (Micromesistius australis) in the New Zealand waters were studied. The material was collected from August to October 1992 aboard the FV Sapun Gora (19th cruise). A total of 398 pairs of otoliths were treated. Ten age groups were distinguished. The maximum fish age in catches is 13 years. 10- and 11-year-old fish are absent from the samples. No significant difference is found in the growth of males and females. Males at any age are somewhat smaller than females. It was ascertained that the linear growth of the Southern blue whiting from the region of New Zealang was described by the Von Bertalanffy's growth equation as follows: L = 61.41(1-e super(-0.3659(1-0.6336))).
  • Some peculiarities in Patagonoian toothfish Dissostichus eleginoides (Nototheniidae) biology in the area of the Kerguelen Islands (Sub-Antarctica, Indian Ocean)

    Pshenichnov, L.K.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1994)
    Distribution and feeding habits of the Patagonian toothfish Dissostichus eleginoides from the Kerguelen Isles region (Southern Indian Ocean, France) in the summer season 1991-1992 are discussed. The studies based on the material collected by the author aboard freezing trawler Poltava. The fieldwork was done in the austral summer 1991-1992 (November-April) within the insular shelf and slope. The Patagonian toothfish feeding largely on fish and squid, but can switch prey to consume available food (Hyperiids), accessory (gelatinous organisms) or incidental such as bottom crustaceans, octopuses, food waste from the ships galley. There is a regular depth distribution pattern of size-segregated groups of the toothfish within one fishing area -- the larger fish occurring at greater depths. These size- and depth-segregated groups have also been observed to differ in their diet, there being differences in qualitative composition of their prey at different depths. Seasonal (summer) shift of the size-segregated groups to greater depths has been observed. The fish that were taken in April at depth 550-600 m were supposed to be of the groups that had occurred at depths of 350-400 m during December-April. Seasonal variation in food species composition of the Patagonian toothfish at depths of 500 to 600 m has been recognised. Cold water gelatinous organisms (Salpae, Ctenophora, Scyphomedusae) -- staple food for D. eleginoides during December to February were replaced by a natal-subtropical species of squid (Chiroteuthis veranyi).
  • Production and elimination of mussel cultured in the Donuzlav Lake

    Vizhevsky, V.I.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1994)
    Production indices for Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) grown on serial collectors in Lake Donuzlav (Crimea, Ukraine) in the period from 1984 to 1987 was estimated. Data on the growth, abundance and biomass dynamics and size-weight composition of Mediterranean mussels grown on artificial substrate are presented. The value of mussel production varied considerably during the year depending on the season. Peak values were reached during the spring and autumn. For molluscs in the first year of life, the daily production reached a peak of 282.6 g/day in late August. It was followed by a sharp decline. Elimination of molluscs was increased considerably in winter. In second year of life mussels exhibited a steady increasing in the daily production from July. The daily production reached a peak of 456.3 g/day in autumn. The P/B-ratio for the first one-year and 1.5-year periods of culture was 3.53 and 3.73, respectively. It was almost twice as high (6.65) by the end of the second year of rearing. The elimination reached its maximum at 90.2% towards the autumn in the mussels second year of life as the mussel daily production and biomass on the collectors also reached their peaks by the late summer. On an average for the mussel rearing period the elimination of mussels from the collectors amounted to 70.8%.
  • Results of management of oyster spawning stocks and obtaining of their juveniles in artificial conditions

    Vizhevsky, V.I.; Orlenko, A.N.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1994)
    A study of linear and weight growth of Pacific (Crassostrea gigas) and Black Sea (Ostrea edulis) oysters was made in 1992-1993 in three areas of the Black Sea coast of Crimea (Ukraine): 1) in the southern part of the Kerch strait; 2) in the Lake Donuzlav; 3) on the Kara-Dag coast. Oysters were kept in retainer devices and on collectors. In Lake Donuzlav, the average daily shell growth increment in Pacific oysters was 0.21 mm/day an over the 4.5 month summer-autumn period. The daily average weight growth over the same period was as high as 0.6 g/day. The growth rate of Pacific oysters in the Kerch Strait was two times less than in Lake Donuzlav. There was 100% survival rate of oysters both in Lake Donuzlav and in the Kara-Dag area. Average oysters mortality in the Kerch Strait area was equal to 12%. The linear growth of Black Sea oysters (from artificially produced spat) in the Kerch Strait area was relatively high during the first one and a half months after the retainer devices were put out to sea, amounting to 9.3 mm over that period. The daily average weight growth was 0.11 g over the three summer months, dropping to 0.006 g in September-October. The pilot production of Pacific oyster larvae and spat made use of the facilities of the aqua-biological station at Kara-Dag.
  • Method of two-stage mussel culture in the Kerch Strait

    Vizhevsky, V.I.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1994)
    The two-stage Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) growing technique is one of the approaches to the decreasing the costs in mussel farming. The method comprises two stages: 1) the procurement and temporary maintenance of mussel seed; 2) the growing of mussel seed to marketable mussel size.
  • Stromateoidei in the Southern part of Africa and adjacent areas (distribution, biology, fisheries).

    Piotrovsky, A.S.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1994)
    A total of 24 species of stromateiod fishes (Stromateoidei) from 5 families (except Amarsipidae) were registered on the shelf of the southern part of Africa (off Angola, Namibia, South Africa and Mozambique) and in the adjacent areas of the Atlantic and Indian oceans from YugNIRO data collected in research cruises from 1972 to 1990. Some species are forming dense concentrations at the banks, mountains and elevations in the systems of Whale, Mozambique, Madagascar and Western Indian ridges and vulnerable for fishing gears. Twelve species: Hyperoglyphe antarctica, Schedophilus huttoni, S. maculatus, S. ovalis, Centrolophus niger (Centrolophidae), Cubiceps caeruleus, C. pauciradiatus, C. capensis, Psenes pellucidus, Parapsenes rotundas (Nomeidae), Tetragonurus cuvieri, T. atlanticus (Tetragonuridae), are common for the western and eastern coasts of Africa. Nine species are found only eastwards to Africa, they are as follows: Tubbia tasmanica, Psenopsis obscura (Centrolophidae), Cubiceps squamiceps, Nomeus gronovii, Psenes maculatus, P. arafurensis, P. cyanophris, P. whiteleggii (Nomeidae), Ariomma indica (Ariommidae). Three species dwell only near the western coast: H. moselii, S. pemarco (Centrolophidae), Stromateus fiatela (Stromateidae). On the shelf of the southern part of Africa nomeids Cubiceps squamiceps and butterfishes Ariomma indica as well as Centrolophidae in the Namibia area may have the commercial interest. The densest concentrations of nomeids were found in the area of Bazaruto Island (Mozambique). Butterfish is one of the most abundant fishes on the Mozambique shelf in 30-200 m depths caught with bottom trawl. The best catches, up to 900 kg per trawling hour were reached in the area Boa Paz (southern Mozambique); they reached 700 kg on the Sofala Shallow (central coast of Mozambique).

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