Recent Submissions

  • Dumping ground and its impact on distribution of pollutants in the Kerch pre-strait zone of the Black Sea

    Petrenko, O.A.; Sebakh, L.K.; Pankratova, T.M.; Avdeeva, T.M.; Popova, T.V.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1993)
    The greatest amount of wastes discharged into the sea in order to bury them consists of grounds in the process of dredging. An attempt is made to assess impact of dumping of dredging wastes from the Kerch Marine Merchant Port (Ukraine) on changes in hydrochemical regime of the pre-strait zone of the Black Sea against the background of established regime of discharge. For these purposes two complex ecological surveys were carried out in November 1991 (before the beginning of dredging operations) and in March 1992 (after its completing). As a result, the content of mercury in the grounds of the central part of the dump increased from 0.05 to 0.10 mcg/g of dry matter. However, maximum concentrations of this highly toxic element are with the range of the underwater dump. High lead concentrations in bottom sediments of the area of deep water dumps were proved both by the results of background survey (more than 25.0 mcg/g of dry matter in the north-western part of the area) and data obtained after completing of dumping (up to 37.7 mcg/g of dry matter). Summary content of oil products in the process of dumping increased not only in the surface layer of bottom sediments in the area of underwater dumps but in the water of the near-bottom horizon. In bottom sediments the mean concentration of summary oil products in the area of dump of grounds increased 2.3 times. Oil carbohydrates and heavy metals in the grounds of dredging, depositing in bottom sediments, create a situation of chronic contamination of waters and bottom sediments in the area under examination and are a source of secondary contamination of the near-bottom water layer.
  • Monitoring of contamination of the north-western shelf of the Black Sea in the zone of exploration of the promising gas deposits

    Pankratova, T.M.; Sebakh, L.K.; Panov, B.N.; Avdeeva, T.M.; Petrenko, O.A.; Popova, T.V.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1993)
    The following tasks were carried out: 1) analysis of the level of contamination in the background areas of the north-western shelf of the Black Sea (Ukraine) beyond explorated deposits of gas and gas condensate; 2) complex ecological studies of the ecosystem state on the north-western shelf with regard of predominant shifts of water masses; 3) assessment of the level of impact of the objects of the industrial enterprise 'Chernomorneftegas' on the water environment and bottom sediments in the areas of location of marine stationary platforms (MSP). Monitoring of contamination of water and bottom sediments of the area under study was carried out by following indices: heavy metals (mercury, copper, lead, cadmium, chromium) and oil components (volatile and non-volatile carbohydrates, resins and asphaltens). Bottom sediments of the north-western shelf of the Black Sea are most polluted with lead, concentrations of which exceeded geochemical background all over there. Negative impact of drilling on the components of the ecosystem reveal itself to the greatest extent directly near the wells or southward that agree well with data on distribution of bottom biocenoses. In the zone of location of marine stationary platforms on the north-western shelf increased content (in comparison with background values) of oil components was observed both in the surface and near-bottom layers with predominance of non-volatile carbohydrates in the fractional composition that is a feature of secondary contamination. Summary content of oil products in bottom sediments of Odessa Bay and adjacent area of the shelf, near-Danube region is compatible with values characteristic with most polluted stations in the zone of location of MSP. In the component composition, resins and asphaltens are prevalent (up to 1.94 mg/g of dry matter). In bottom sediments of the zone of location of MSP summary content of oil products varies in the wide range, from 0.063 to 2.849 mg/g of dry matter.
  • The present state of the hydrogen sulphide layer in the Black Sea

    Bryantsev, V.A.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1993)
    Anthropogenic withdrawal of the river inflow, and deliberately determined critical changes in the ecosystems of the Aral, Caspian and Azov Seas, have had an impact on the state of hydrostructure of the Black Sea. Summer-autumn hydrogen sulphide contamination of near-bottom waters intensified on the north-western shelf of the Black Sea, salinity in the layers from 50 down to 300 m increased statistically considerably, and hydrochemical structure of the sea and even its heat state underwent changes (Bryantsev, et al., 1991). In the period from 1954 to 1983 a trend towards raise of the basic picnocline for 40-60 m and the upper border of the hydrogen sulphide layer connected with it. The last considerable raise of the level of the hydrogen sulphide waters was observed in 1983 when reduction of natural inflow and maximum irretrievable water consumption were recorded simultaneously for all the period under study. Signs of improvement of ecological situation of the Black Sea, for instance, YugNIRO surveys show reduction in intensity of the winter-killing phenomena on the north-western shelf.
  • Information support of fishery resources studies

    Korshunova, G.P.; Pronenko, S.M.; Trotsenko, B.G.; Ursatieva, G.I.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1993)
    Databases available in YugNIRO reflect main trends of resource studies and incorporate: 1) commercial biological and oceanographic data obtained as a result of expeditional studies in the Indian and Southern Oceans and in the Black Sea and kept in the Data Bank of the Information System of Subscribers' Archives (ISAA) as unified forms of collection and record of data; 2) operative data from fisheries as daily radioreports (system RIF) and daily radioreports (system OCEAN) aggregated into monthly arrays on magnetic tapes; 3) temporal series characterizing state of ecosystem obtained as a result of calculations and analysis; 4) hydrometeorological information for the areas of the Indian and Southern Oceans and for the Black Sea. Data on availability of information on machine carriers are given in the table.
  • Assessment of filtration ability of fouling organisms on marine stationary stations in the Black Sea and their role in ecosystem

    Zolotarev, P.N.; Litvinenko, N.M.; Rubinshtein, I.G.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1993)
    In order to reveal the role of fouling organisms of marine stationary platforms (MSP), situated in the North Western shelf of the Black Sea (Ukraine) used by industrial enterprise 'Chernomorneftegas' for gas extraction on the ecosystem of water area, YugNIRO expedition carried out works for assessment of their filtration ability and the role in changing of aggregate state of suspended in water elements in May 1992. The studies demonstrated that biocenosis of fouling organisms on marine stationary platforms consisted of a Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis), mytilaster (Mytilaster lineatus), cirripedia (Balanus improvisus), ascidian (Ciona intestinalis), Gammaridae, and sponges. Mussels were located in the examined horizons while all the other species were found only in the upper 15-meter layer. All the fouling organisms (except Gammaridae) are filtrators providing in the process of vital activity change in the suspension aggregate state and to a greater extent speeding up the process of its sedimentation. Along with this, a share of mussels in the total biomass of community was highest (99.99%). In this connection in estimations of filtration ability of fouling organisms of marine stationary stations only filtration by mussels was taken into account. According to average long-term data concentration of suspended organic matter in the north-western Black Sea is about 1.5 mg/l, and that of phytoplankton - 300 mg/l. The mussels living on the examined marine stationary platforms are able to bind and sediment up to 3250 t of suspension per year. It is known that in the process of mussels' filtration activity oil is bound by them and sediment to the bottom in faeces and pseudofaeces. With a concentration of oil products at a level of 0.022 mg/l mussels from the four examined MSP are able to bind up to 39.8 t of this pollutant during one year.
  • Statistical analysis of long-term variations of the oceanographic characteristics (S, O2, P, Si, H2S) of the Black Sea

    Kovalchuk, L.A.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1993)
    Широкое распространение в популярной и специальной литературе получило мнение о том, что в результате изменений речного стока произошло опреснение поверхностных (0-50 м) и осолонение промежуточных (75-300 м) горизонтов, с чем связывают изменения концентраций биогенных элементов и предполагаемый подъём верхней границы сероводородной зоны. Наша цель — показать, что статистически значимых внутривековых изменений гидроструктуры глубоководной части моря не происходит, а утверждения о трансформации моря основаны преимущественно на расчётах трендов, что принципиально неверно, т. к. коэффициент регрессии (тренда) не является значимым на любом отрезке временного ряда и, к тому же, при расчёте трендов не учитываются погрешности оценок интегральных характеристик. Методическая основа работы состоит в проверке нулевой гипотезы о принадлежности временных выборок интегральной океанографической характеристики одной и той же генеральной совокупности. Исходной информацией послужили материалы наблюдений АзЧерНИРО по стандартной схеме станций.
  • Complex analysis of water structure and potential productivity of 'CompASSP'

    Korshunova, G.P.; Kochergin, A.T.; Trotsenko, B.G.; Yakovlev, V.N.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1993)
    Details are given of a computer program for an IBM/PC-386 in MS-DOS environment to estimate the degree of impact of hydrophysical, hydrodynamic and biochemical processes on variability of fields of chemical elements and estimate intensity of producing of primary organic matter within the required area. Software consists of three levels: dialogue support, information provision and executable modules. Arrangement of the model for a certain area is carried out with input of the corresponding coefficients from literature sources or obtained by calculations. As manager and re-arranger of the system a command file is used via which interaction of the executable modules with information block takes place: 1. formation of the initial data for the required NSM-degree squares; 2. calculation of 3-dimensional circulation; 3. calculation of autocorrelative functions of oceanological fields in required directions, typical spatial scale and coefficients of diffusion exchange; 4. calculation of balance components; 5. mapping of the components of currents' speed, balance components and specific primary production on the required standard horizons. The developed complex of the programmes may be successfully applied in various studies of the World Ocean, including prognostic ones and for training purposes.
  • Main results of the YugNIRO complex research in the Azov and Black Seas Basin and the World Ocean.

    Yakovlev, V.N.; Yakovlev, V.N. (1993)
    Main results of the fishery expeditions, conducted in the Azov Sea under the YugNIRO initiative, are given. Data on biological resources, their availability for the fishery fleet of Ukraine in various areas of the World Ocean are revealed. Stock assessment of the Antarctic krill is made for the Antarctic Atlantic. Fish catch predictions for the Black Sea commercial species are made. Prospects of the new processing methods for the food products from mussels are analyzed.
  • Основные результаты комплексных исследований ЮгНИРО в Азово-Черноморском бассейне и Мировом океане

    Yakovlev, V.N.; Southern Scientific Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography (YugNIRO) (YugNIROKerch, Crimea, Ukraine, 1993)
    Рассмотрены вопросы биологии, оценки запасов рыб Азово-Черноморского бассейна и Индийского океана и промыслового прогнозирования с учётом особенностей антропогенного воздействия. Представлены результаты комплексного анализа структуры вод, а также сведения об информационно-вычислительном обеспечении сырьевых исследований, возможностях и перспективах развития системы сбора и обработки спутниковой информации. Дана характеристика нового лечебно-профилактического препарата радиозащитного действия. Приведена программа оздоровления населения Украины.