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  • Comparative analysis of the production potential of the water bodies subjected to varying rates of fishing exploitation

    Труды АзНИИРХ / Proceedings of AzNIIRKH
    The hydrochemical characterization of the Lysyy (Bold) Liman Lake and Volchy Vorota (Wolf Gates) Reservoir is given. The data on its food resources and current ichthyofauna composition are given. Based on the analysis of the exploitable stock estimates and the data from the actual catches, commercial productivity of the indicated water bodies has been compared in the context of the attempted introduction of herbivorous fish species in one of them and natural development of the ichthyofauna in the other one.
  • Prospects for the use of the Chelbas Limans in the reproduction of semi-anadromous fish species

    Vishnevskiy, S. L.; Petrashov, V. I.; Rudakova, N. A.; Matveeva, E. I. (2023)
    Труды АзНИИРХ / Proceedings of AzNIIRKH
    For the first time since 1970s, a comparative analysis of the species composition of the commercial ichthyofauna in the Chelbas Limans has been conducted based on long-term surveys. The volumes of natural production of juveniles of semi-anadromous fish species (zander and roach) are presented with the main environmental reasons (water regime and overgrowth) that have influenced the structural transformaton of the ichthyocenoses of the Chelbas Limans over the last half-century. The prospects for using the limans for reproduction of semi-anadromous fish species are shown.
  • Microsporidiosis of flatfishes caused by Tetramicra brevifilum

    Maltsev, V. N. (2023)
    Труды АзНИИРХ / Proceedings of AzNIIRKH
    This article summarizes existing scientific data on microsporidiosis of flatfishes caused by Tetramicra brevifilum. This disease has not yet been recorded in the Azov and Black Seas, but it is found in the adjacent Mediterranean region and the European Atlantic, where it is one of the most prevalent turbot diseases in the context of the commercial cultivation of this fish species. Scientific information on the pathogen, patterns of the disease progression, its geographical distribution, as well as clinical, pathological, epizootic and other features of invasion is given. The danger of the microsporidia T. brevifilum for the Azov and Black Sea flatfishes results from their potential susceptibility to this disease, as well as the possibility of the introduction of this pathogen into the Black Sea due to climate warming, ornamental fish keeping, natural migration of Mediterranean fish species and transportation of stocking material (eggs, juveniles, breeders) for marine cultivation facilities. Methodological approaches to the diagnosis of this disease are described.
  • Scientific peer-reviewed journal “Aquatic Bioresources & Environment” celebrates its fifth anniversary

    Bragina, Tatyana; Mikhaylyuk, Ekaterina A.; Reshitko, Elena E.; Savchuk, Elena A. (2023)
    Труды АзНИИРХ / Proceedings of AzNIIRKH
    In 2023, the scientific peer-reviewed journal “Aquatic Bioresources & Environment” celebrates its first major birthday: 5 years since its first publication. Since 2021, the journal has been included in the List of peer-reviewed scientific publications, in which the main scientific results of dissertations for the degree of Candidate of Science and for the degree of Doctor of Science should be published (List of the Higher Attestation Commission), and is indexed in the Russian Science Citation Index (RSCI); its abstracts are submitted to the International Information System for Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA). Full texts of the articles are available in open access at the official website of the journal and the Scientific Electronic Library (eLIBRARY), as well as on other web platforms accessible through search engines. All articles are assigned with Digital Object Identifiers (DOI), which, in turn, are registered by the international agency Crossref. In 2023, the leading journals of the Russian Federation go through the process of verification and ranking. At present, the journal is included into the category K2 in the List of the Higher Attestation Commission and has major achievements among the Russian scientific periodical publications.
  • Development of processing technology for the preserves derived from the barrel jellyfish Rhizostoma pulmo (Macri, 1778)

    Esina, Lyubov; Belyakova, Irina A. (2023)
    Труды АзНИИРХ / Proceedings of AzNIIRKH
    Production of preserves is being considered as a possible option for the barrel jellyfish Rhizostoma pulmo processing. This work presents the results of experimental studies on production of the preserves derived from the jellyfish that underwent salting and treatment with the tanning substances extracted from oak bark and green tea leaves. It has been noted that the organoleptic characteristics of the preserves in satay sauce and various spicy filling media are appealing for consumption. The investigated samples of the preserves, in terms of the mass percentages of the main product (jellyfish) and cooking salt, met the requirements of TR EAEU 040/2016. Based on the preliminary assessment, the shelf life of the preserves can last 2 months at the temperature 4±2 °С.
  • Effect of the experimental starter formula feeds on the cultivation and biological characteristics of the juveniles of mullet species using so-iuy mullet Liza haematocheilus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1845) = Mugil soiuy (Basilewsky, 1855) in the context of industrial rearing

    Turkulova, V. N.; Gershunskaya, V. V.; Zolotnitskiy, A. P.; Zaichenko, E. A.; Bobova, A. S.; Evchenko, O. V.; Kartamyshev, D. M.; Yakhovskaya, A. R. (2023)
    Труды АзНИИРХ / Proceedings of AzNIIRKH
    This work presents the preliminary results of the studies aimed at the estimation of the effect of experimental starter formula feeds developed by the FSBSI “VNIRO” on the cultivation-related biological characteristics and feed requirements of the so-iuy mullet juveniles reared in flowing-water tanks with the Kerch Strait as a water source. It has been identified that, out of the investigated set of formula feeds, the leading performance based on all criteria (growth rate, survival rate, feed conversion ratio) has been shown by KRLS 2/22 with low fish meal level. It has been found out that the survival rate of the juveniles also depends on the stocking density in the rearing tanks. Irrespective of the feed composition, the survival rate of the so-iuy mullet was significantly higher when the initial stocking density was 555 ind./m3 than when it was 1470 ind./m3.
  • Status assessment of the commercially valuable invertebrates of Syvash Bay and their environment based on the surveys conducted in 2021–2022

    Semik, A. M.; Zhugaylo, S. S.; Okunevich, V. A.; Zamyatina, E. M.; Pugach, M. N.; Filippova, T. V. (2023)
    Труды АзНИИРХ / Proceedings of AzNIIRKH
    The Western Syvash ecosystem has been investigated in the context of natural factors and anthropogenic pressure. The source empirical data have been collected during the field investigations of the Azov-Black Sea Branch of the FSBSI “VNIRO” (“AzNIIRKH”) conducted in the spring, summer and autumn seasons of 2021–2022. At present, the fisheries value of the investigated area stems from the presence of commercially valuable invertebrates. The hydrological and hydrochemical conditions have been described, and qualitative and quantitative parameters of the Pontogammarus, chironomids, Artemia and Artemia at the cyst stage have been evaluated. During the survey period, a considerable variation of the salinity values from the Northern Syvash to the Southern Syvash was observed, which is in line with the data for the previous years. The least favorable environmental conditions have developed in the area near Urozhaynoe Settlement, which mainly results from the influence of the natural factors (poor water circulation, shallow depths, irregular coastline, extensive algal bloom, and algal decay). This area was characterized by extremely low values of dissolved oxygen and high content of ammonium salts, as well as increased values of other hydrochemical parameters. Deterioration of the aquatic environment in this area has led to the decreased values of the Artemia quantitative parameters and high rates of cyst production. General changes in the stocks of the exploitable aquatic bioresources in this area can be attributed to the variations in salinity, wind-driven effects, wind direction, and the reduction of their favorable habitat.
  • Results of the study of commercial fish species in the Veselovsky Reservoir in 2021–2022

    Saenko, E. M.; Chubukov, V. V.; Ozhigov, G. A.; Golovko, G. V. (2023)
    Труды АзНИИРХ / Proceedings of AzNIIRKH
    This article presents the results of fish resource assessment conducted in 2021–2022 in the Veselovsky Reservoir and characterizes its major commercial fish species. The results of the investigation of the commercial fish stocks in the Veselovsky Reservoir characterize the physiological status of the populations as good based on a number of parameters (visceral fatness, conditional factor, fertility), which results from the abundance and diversity of the food supply and favorable environmental conditions. In the past two years, a noticeable increase in the stock abundance of commercial fish species has been observed in the Veselovsky Reservoir, which provides the ground to expect the formation of a stable resource for commercial fishing in the near future.
  • Conditions for the development of crayfish stocks in the Veselovsky Reservoir

    Saenko, E. M.; Zhukova, S. V.; Kosenko, Yu. V.; Korablina, I. V.; Trushkov, A. V.; Kotov, S. V. (2023)
    Труды АзНИИРХ / Proceedings of AzNIIRKH
    Crayfish is a long-established fisheries target in the water bodies of the Rostov Region. This work presents the data characterizing the pollution of water and bottom sediments with petroleum products, organochlorine pesticides, and heavy metals. The changes in the biological parameters of the crayfish population in the reservoir have been reviewed. The status of crayfish population, their stocks and abundance in the reservoir are conditional upon the existing range of abiotic and anthropogenic factors. The ecological improvement of the environment in 2020–2022 and the low concentrations of petroleum products, organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals facilitated the recovery of the crayfish exploitable stock that reached 32.9 t in 2022. In the consistently favourable conditions, under a regular monitoring of the productive crayfish populations, sustainable exploitation of their stocks and responsible control over their harvesting implemented by the fisheries protection authorities, this reservoir will retain its crayfish commercial importance.
  • Regional features of the wind regime of the Black Sea (in the Tuapse Region)

    Zhukova, S. V.; Podmareva, T. I.; Lutynskaya, L. A.; Burlachko, D. S.; Kalyuzhnaya, N. V. (2023)
    Труды АзНИИРХ / Proceedings of AzNIIRKH
    Specific features of the development of the wind regime in the coastal waters near Tuapse, Black Sea, have been investigated. The average and extreme characteristics of the wind regime (speed, direction, repeatability, strong winds, windless situations, local winds) are given.
  • Variability of atmospheric precipitation in the coastal part of the Tuapse Region of the Black Sea over the last 70-year observation period

    Zhukova, S. V.; Podmareva, T. I.; Lutynskaya, L. A.; Burlachko, D. S.; Karmanov, V. G.; Shishkin, V. M. (2023)
    Труды АзНИИРХ / Proceedings of AzNIIRKH
    The analysis of data series on average monthly and annual amounts of atmospheric precipitation in the coastal part of the Tuapse region of the Black Sea is carried out. The trends of atmospheric precipitation variability over a 70-year observation period were evaluated.
  • Formation patterns of wave activity in the coastal waters of the southeastern Russian sector of the Black Sea

    Zhukova, S. V.; Podmareva, T. I.; Burlachko, D. S.; Lutynskaya, L. A.; Bezrukavaya, E. A.; Karmanov, V. G.; Shishkin, V. M. (2023)
    Труды АзНИИРХ / Proceedings of AzNIIRKH
    The wave regime of the coastal waters in the Southeastern Russian sector of the Black Sea has been described based on the data of the wave-measuring station located in the area adjacent to Tuapse. The data of observations for the time range from 1975 to 2005 were used. Such characteristics as wave types, fetch lengths, wave type repeatability by month and direction, wave repeatability for the waves of different heights, the number of days with storm wave action, and the duration of storm wave conditions have been investigated. It is shown that the sea wave action in the coastal waters near Tuapse is determined by the observed wind, the influence of open sea waves, as well as by the orography of the sea port area, open to the wave systems from the southwest, south, and, to a lesser extent, from the west.
  • Overview of the objectives and outcomes of AzCherNIRO (YugNIRO) studies in the field of commercial oceanology and marine geology

    Panov, Boris N.; Kochergin, Anatoly T.; Smirnov, Sergey; Lanin, Vladimir I. (2023)
    Труды АзНИИРХ / Proceedings of AzNIIRKH
    The 60–80s of the last century were the period of the most rapid development of commercial oceanology in the Azov and Black Sea Scientific Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography (AzCherNIRO, further renamed YugNIRO). In addition to the monitoring of oceanographic processes, it was involved in the areas of general marine ecology, monitoring of marine pollution, and space oceanology. Oceanographic information is used in forecasting the state of aquatic ecosystems at various timescales and is crucial for fishing forecasts. In 1981, a satellite data reception center was established in AzCherNIRO. In the 80–90s, in YugNIRO, an optimal procedure was created for multidimensional predictive monitoring of the state of the Black Sea ecosystem. In September 1986, within the Laboratory of Commercial Oceanology of the Black Sea, a group for the conservation of marine ecosystems was created, which turned into a sector in January 1989, and into a separate laboratory in December 1996. Its reasearchers carried out multidisciplinary environmental studies, investigating the ecological status of the aquatic areas affected by the facilities of the marine industry during their operation, monitoring the level of soil contamination, and excercising the toxicological control of fish and fish products. YugNIRO oceanological studies conducted in the World Ocean from the early 1970s to the early 1990s made it possible to link the productivity and catches of exploitable species to the atmospheric circulation, changes in the climatic fields of currents, as well as to the geo- and heliophysical factors, which enabled the fishing predictions with a one-year lead time or more for the fishing areas of the Central, Southeastern and Southwestern Indian Ocean, the Patagonian Shelf, and the Indian Ocean sector of Antarctica. In the 70–90s and early 2000s, YugNIRO conducted marine geological studies facilitating fishing operations and environmental protection in the Gulf of Aden, on the bottom elevations of the tropical and subtropical parts of the Indian Ocean, in the Antarctic Shelf area, and in the Black and Azov Seas. This article lays down the current major goals and prospects of commercial oceanology.
  • Assessment of the hydrochemical state of the Azov Sea based on the data collected during the field studies in 2021–2022

    Trushkov, A. V.; Baskakova, T. E.; Kartamysheva, T. B.; Shevtsova, A. A. (2023)
    Труды АзНИИРХ / Proceedings of AzNIIRKH
    This paper presents the results of the investigation of the dynamics of the main hydrochemical characteristics of the Azov Sea in the autumn seasons of 2021–2022. Over this time range, a change in the oxygen regime of the Azov Sea has been recorded. The concentrations of ammonium, nitrate, and total nitrogen, as well as total phosphorus have a considerable impact on the level of primary production of organic matter by phytoplankton. At the present period of a low river flow, the concentration of biogenic elements is decreasing, which leads to a decrease in the primary production of organic matter.
  • Development of fodder zooplankton in the Azov Sea in the context of changing salinity and predation pressure of gelatinous macroplankton

    Mirzoyan, Zinaida; Martynyuk, Marina L.; Hrenkin, Dmitry; Afanasyev, Dmitry; Bychkova, Marina V.; Zhukova, Svetlana V.; Bondarev, Sergey V.; Piatinskii, Mikhail (2023)
    Труды АзНИИРХ / Proceedings of AzNIIRKH
    This work presents the results of long-term assessment of the influence of the Azov Sea salinity changes and predation pressure of the Black Sea gelatinous invading species—ctenophores and scyphozoans—on the development of fodder zooplankton. It is shown that the increase in the salinity of the water body leads to considerable changes in the taxonomic structure of its community. Freshwater and brackish-water species are being replaced by characteristic marine taxa from the Black Sea that are gradually becoming dominant. The number of the species immigrating from the Black Sea is growing; their range extends beyond the Southern Azov Sea. Some of them are rapidly developing far outside the area directly influenced by the Black Sea waters, including Taganrog Bay. The gelatinous predatory ctenophores and jellyfish from the Black Sea start to appear in this water body. Simultaneous development of these species escalates the consumption of fodder zooplankton by invaders. More substantial changes in taxonomic structure of the community are also observed; its development indicators and production are decreasing.
  • Accumulation and excretion of hydrocarbons in bivalve molluscs depending on the level of the oil pollution of bottom sediments

    Pavlenko, Liliya; Anokhina, Natalya S.; Barabashin, Timofey (2023)
    Труды АзНИИРХ / Proceedings of AzNIIRKH
    Benthic organisms are among the crucial components of an aquatic ecosystem, taking part in the circulation of matter and facilitating self-purification processes in water bodies. A number of researchers indicate a positive correlation between the content of toxicants in benthic organisms and their habitat, which leads to recommendations to use various species of bottom invertebrates as indicators for the pollution monitoring of aquatic ecosystems. Molluscs accumulate hydrocarbons (HC) at a higher rate than they excrete them from their body due to the absence or, at least, low development of the hydrocarbon hydroxylase detoxification system. Bivalve molluscs Mytilus galloprovincialis, a species actively involved in the filtration of the bottom water layer and coming into contact with polluted substrate, served as a subject for this investigation. This mollusc species is a valuable food source; as a part of the Azov and Black Sea zoobenthos community, it is widely spread and abundant. The experiments have been conducted on M. galloprovincialis individuals of the average length of 3–4 cm cultivated on the mussel collectors in the acceptably pure waters in the area near Bolshoy (Big) Utrish Cape. Two series of the experiments with different exposition time have been conducted: the short-term one (5 days) and a longer one (21 days). During the experiments, the bottom sediments (BS) of various pollution level were used: 0.03, 0.5, 0.6, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 g/kg petroleum products, dry weight. Following the laboratory tests, it has been found that the dynamics of accumulation and subsequent extraction of hydrocarbons from the soft tissues in mussel is dependent on the pollution level of bottom sediments.
  • Pesticides of modern classes in water and bottom sediments of Veselovsky, Proletarsky and Krasnodar Reservoirs

    Valiullin, Vasil A.; Zinchuk, Olga A.; Karpushina, Yuliya E. (2023)
    Труды АзНИИРХ / Proceedings of AzNIIRKH
    Veselovsky, Proletarsky and Krasnodar Reservoirs are located in the area, extensively used for various agricultural purposes. This industry requires the use of means to protect cultivated plants from pests. When land is treated with pesticides, these substances can enter water bodies of fisheries importance through the air and soil, accumulate in bottom sediments and have a negative impact on the vital functions of hydrobionts. Using the method of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), 20 active ingredients (AI) of pesticides of modern classes that are used in agriculture of the region and the half-life of which can exceed six months have been investigated. In preparation for chromatography, pesticides were extracted from the samples of water and bottom sediments with dichloromethane, followed by drying and purification of the extracts. It has been established that the concentrations of pesticide AIs in the aquatic living environment of the investigated reservoirs are more than an order of magnitude lower than the established maximum permissible concentrations (MPCs).
  • Stock assessment of the European anchovy and European sprat in the Russian waters of the Black Sea in 2022–2023

    Shlyakhov, Vladislav; Negoda, Sergey A.; Piatinskii, Mikhail; Shlyakhova, Olga V. (2023)
    Труды АзНИИРХ / Proceedings of AzNIIRKH
    The results of the stock assessments of the European anchovy and European sprat, exploited by the Russian Federation in the Black Sea exclusively or predominantly, are presented. Based on the results of production modeling in 2022, the biomass value of the “Azov Sea” anchovy stock unit was in the buffer zone, between the target and limit biological reference points (Btr=BMSY=123.3 thousand tons, Blim=61.6 thousand tons); the time of stock recovery to the target level is 4 years. The fishing mortality rate (annual fishing loss, F) in 2022 is estimated to be F2022=0.20, which is lower than the biological reference point (Ftr=0.23). The estimation based on the lampara net surveys is more favorable: spawning stock biomass (exploitable) SSB2022 exceeded Btr calculated using Ricker’s “stock–recruitment” relationship by 19 %. The Azov Sea stock of the European anchovy has been characterized as “showing the evidence for recovery under heavy exploitation; subjected to the environmental effects”. In the 2022/2023 fishing season, fishing operations on the Black Sea stock of the European anchovy were mostly absent due to the state-imposed limitation in the Northwestern Black Sea and the western waters along the Southern Coast of Crimea (SCC). The biomass of the “Black Sea” anchovy stock unit in 2022, based on the results of JABBA trend modeling in “catch-only” representation, has been estimated as B2022=22.5 thousand tons, which is 3 % lower than the target reference point Btr=BMSY=23.2 thousand tons. The ratio between the current fishing mortality and its biological reference point was F2022/FMSY=0.467, which is indicative of its low exploitation. The catch composition of the European sprat in 2022–2023 was characterized by the prevalence of the 2+ and 3+ age classes (71–87 % by abundance). Based on XSA, in 2022, the spawning stock biomass (exploitable biomass) SSB2022 was 67.2 thousand tons, the recruitment was 56 billion ind., and the fishing mortality was F2022=0.29. The spawning stock biomass was in the buffer zone between the limit and target biological reference points by the biomass (SSB2022/SSBtr=1.433, SSB2022/SSBtr=0.841), while the fishing mortality was considerably lower than its biological reference point (F/F0.1=0.479). In 2022, the current Black Sea stocks of anchovy and sprat were officially characterized as “declining, little exploited”, with the possibility for underestimation of their biomass.
  • Characterization of the zooplankton community of the western part of the Proletarsky Reservoir in the spring season of 2021–2022

    Шляхова, Наталия (2023)
    Труды АзНИИРХ / Proceedings of AzNIIRKH
    The Proletarsky Reservoir located in the Kuma–Manych Depression is a water body that is highly important for the fisheries in the Southern Russia. Its western part is the most economically valuable, which necessitates the investigation of its zooplankton serving as a food source for the larvae and planktivorous fish. This work presents the results of investigation of the zooplankton community in this area during fish spawning campaign in the spring seasons of 2021–2022. In spring, the zooplankton was represented by 4 groups of organisms (30 species), which include rotifers, copepods, cladocerans, and meroplankton. Among them, the copepods were the most diverse, with the species of Cyclopoida suborder being the most prevalent. The rotifers were the most abundant, comprising 67 % of the total zooplankton abundance. The cladocerans comprised the major part of the zooplankton biomass; their share in the total biomass consistently remained at 79 %. The total biomass of the zooplankton exceeded 300 mg/m3, which is sufficient to provide the planktivorous fish species and their larvae with a food source.
  • Results of the rearing of zander Sander lucioperca (L.) and roach Rutilus rutilus (L.) juveniles in the hatcheries of the Krasnodar Territory in 2023

    Poroshina, E. A.; Polin, A. A.; Shevchenko, V. N.; Sergeeva, S. G. (2023)
    Труды АзНИИРХ / Proceedings of AzNIIRKH
    This work presents quantitative data collected in the course of zander and roach artificial reproduction in the hatcheries of the Krasnodar Territory in 2023. Based on the surveys, 4.68 t of roach and 17.5 t of zander entered the reservoirs of Yeysk Experimental Hatchery for spawning. For the first time during the long-term observations, young individuals of low reproductive quality prevailed in the roach spawning stock. During the downstream migration, roach juveniles were absent in catches, and zander juveniles occurred very sporadically, which indicates their increased loss during all stages of early ontogenesis. The data collected in Beysug Hatchery gives evidence of 2.484 t of roach and 2.557 t of zander entering its reservoirs for spawning. In June–July, during the downstream migration, 16.48 million ind. of roach juveniles, which weight ranged from 0.3 to 1.2 g, were recorded; for zander juveniles these values were 0.140 million ind. and 0.91–1.53 g. The downstream migration of juveniles continued in August. At the floodgate of East-Akhtarsk Hatchery, the monitoring of breeders recorded 0.457 t of roach and 0.088 t of zander. The breeders were of low reproductive quality. Based on quantitative evaluation, the reproduction yield in the East-Akhtarsk Hatchery reservoir was 153.4 million ind. of roach (weight ranging from 0.3 to 0.96 g) and 102.25 million ind. of zander (weight 1.28–2.07 g). The monitoring of breeders entering the limans of Chernoerkovsk Hatchery recorded 8.0 t of roach and 12.85 t of zander. Chernorkovsk Hatchery showed the highest results: 426.32 million ind. of roach juveniles (weight 0.3–0.9 g) and 218.16 million ind. of zander juveniles (weight 0.47–3.37 g). Analysis of the obtained data has shown that low reproductive efficiency of both roach and zander is indicative for almost all investigated reservoirs of the hatcheries.

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