Recent Submissions

  • Клеточно-автоматная двумерная имитация переноса взвеси

    Polupanov, V.N.; Panov, Boris (2017)
    Based on the cellullar automation (CA-modelling), two-dimensional simulation model of transfer of the sediment inert suspended matter cloud is presented in terms of advective diffusion. Recently obtained empirical relationships for calculation of the advective and diffusion components are used. CA loyalty allows to consider the main factors, influencing the transfer and suspended matter cloud sedimentation under conditions of rugged bottom relief of the shallow coastal waters. With the depth being constant, the CA model complies with the classical model of the advective diffusion. Examples of modelling in different areas of the Kerch Strait reveal that the obtained results correspond in quality to the existing concept of advective diffusion in the shallow coastal waters. Implementation is conducted as a web program CA2DSIST (Cellular Automata 2D-Simulation Suspension Transfer) and is characterized by computation efficiency, which allows to timely preform simulation experiments with the suspended matter sources using slow computers. CA2DSIST is designated for operational calculations of the pollution parameters with the suspended matter emissions in order to assess negative effects on hydrobionts.
  • История технологических исследований ЮгНИРО

    Esina, L.M.; Gorbenko, L.A.; Panov, Boris (2017)
    The main results of the scientific research studies of the technological laboratory (in more recent times, the sector) of raw marine product processing are stated. The time frame from the day of the subdivision establishment within the AzCherNIRO structure and up to present moment is covered. Initially, the fish species of the Black and Azov Seas were the main research target of the laboratory; then, with development of high-sea fisheries, the research studies also covered oceanic fish species, mainly of the Indian Ocean. The materials, prepared by the experts of the Laboratory of techno-chemical composition of the high-sea fisheries new targets, were subsequently used by VNIRO (Moscow, Russia) in the process of compilation of the reference book on oceanic fish species. It is shown that the institute technologists always solved vital problems that the fisheries sector was facing. These research studies concerned preservation of raw fish, setting terms of storage for chilled and frozen fish, for minced meat of oceanic fish, prepared with stabilizing additives. As a result of the research in the sphere of manufacturing practice for salted products, cold-smoked and hot-smoked fish, preserves, canned products, the range of products, produced by industry enterprises, has been expanded. Works on determining scientifically valid sterilization treatment for canned products were carried out in the framework of the laboratory. Mussels, veined rapa whelk, microalgae have become the main target for the studies aimed to develop products, possessing radiation protecting qualities. Possibility of using mussel carbohydrate-protein сoncentrate (M-CPC) as a therapeutic agent with radiation protecting effect was established by biomedical clinical investigations. All technological studies resulted in development of specification documents. An inextricable connection between technological research studies and standardization is shown.
  • Разработка технологии кормовых продуктов из мелких азово-черноморских рыб

    Chernyavskaya, S.L.; Esina, L.M.; Vinnov, A.S.; Krivonos, O.N.; Panov, Boris (2017)
    The article considers the possibility of applying enzymatic hydrolizates of small Azov and Black Seas fish species – the Azov anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus maeoticus), the Black Sea sprat (Sprattus sprattus phalericus) and tyulka (Clupeonella cultriventris) – in the process of feed production. The records and methods of studies used on developmental stage are presented. Upon the analysis of chemical composition of fish raw product, the practicability of anchovy, sprat and tyulka usage as protein and fat componets in the process of feed production has been established. The values of experiment design factors (hydrolysis duration, enzyme agent dosage, water duty) and corresponding function response values (tyrosine quantity) were presented, as well as the degree of protein hydrolysis. The research determined optimal regimes for anchovy, sprat and tyulka enzymatic hydrolysis with the aim of obtaining highly digestible fish protein with high degree of its hydrolysis: hydrolysis duration 360 minutes, dosage of enzyme agent protosubtilin G3x 0.5 %, water duty 10 %. A process design has been developed for feed product in bulk on the basis of enzymatic hydrolyzate of Azov and Black Seas small fish raw material, which includes the following operations: raw material delivery, thawing procedure (for frozen fish), rinsing, blending of minced fish with preservative agent, its fermentolysis, enzyme inactivation, blending of enzymatic hydrolysate with minced plant raw material, drying and milling of fish and plant blend compound, elimination of metal foreign matters, cooling, sieving, packing, labelling, transportation and storage. The experimental research studies allowed to find out that raw protein content in the developed fish-plant feed product is 20.8 % (47.6 % of this protein is presented by the products of protein hydrolytic decomposition: amino acids, short chain peptides, polypeptides), fat content is 5.1 %, water content is 7.6 %, crude ash is 4.1 %.
  • Технологическое нормирование выхода мороженой продукции из водных биоресурсов Азово-Черноморского рыбохозяйственного бассейна

    Esina, L.M.; Gorobets, L.M.; Gorbenko, L.A.; Panov, Boris (2017)
    Technological standardization of fish production output facilitates conservation of biological resources and their sustainable use, offers possibilities to find methods, which can decrease waste and losses of the processed raw materials. It is noted that works on technological standardization at the Crimean fish processing enterprises have not been carried out since the Soviet Union breakup. The main findings, obtained during experimental and testing works on technological standardization of the frozen products output from aquatic biological resources of the Azov and Black Seas Fishery Basin, are focused on. Size and weight characteristics as well as organoleptic quality parameters of small Azov and Black Seas fish species, forwarded to freezing, are established. As a result of experimental and testing works, carried out on board fishing vessels and at the coastal fish processing enterprises (Crimea), loss allowances during the freezing process in rack freezing chambers with forced air circulation and in horizontal plate freezers were identified for the Black Sea sprat, anchovy, European sprat and gobies. It is shown that losses of the fish, which has undergone preliminary wrapping in polymeric bags and is frozen on racks in freezing block forms without lids, are lower than those of the fish, which is frozen in freezing block forms without lids. In order to reduce production losses, it is recommended for fish processing enterprises to use preliminary wrapping of fish in polymeric bags, when freezing block forms without lids are to be used. Consumption coefficients per unit of frozen products from the Black Sea sprat, anchovy, European sprat and gobies have been calculated. On the basis of the conducted work, recommendations on the output rates of frozen products from small Azov and Black Seas fish species have been developed for their further inclusion into the collected book of Unified Standards, published by FSBSI «VNIRO».
  • Обоснование ограничений сроков добычи цист артемии в Крыму

    Mikhaylyuk, A.N.; Semik, A.M.; Panov, Boris (2017)
    Based on literature data systematization and analysis, potential negative consequences of brine shrimp cysts harvesting in the saline water bodies of Crimean Peninsula (Russia) have been investigated for different seasons. In order to avoid those consequences, it is recommended to make provisions for permission to harvest brine shrimp cysts (both for commercial fishing and angling) from October 1 to February 28 in fishery regulations. This measure should apply both to the inland water bodies of the Crimea and to the water bodies connected to the Sea of Azov. If further observations establish that the abundance of the mature shrimps producing cysts in water bodies in October is reasonably large, it would be rational to shift the starting date of harvesting to mid October or to November 1. In case brine shrimp cyst harvesting is suspended due to implementation of the recommended harvesting volumes within a calendar year, it is considered to be feasible to introduce a ban on their harvesting in January and February as well.
  • Пути развития прибрежного промысла в Азовском море у берегов Крыма

    Stafikopulo, A.M.; Gorbatyuk, Ya.I.; Panov, Boris (2017)
    For the last years, there has been a problem of inefficient use of available fish resources (resource underexploitation). By means of complete utilization of the allowed catch limits of aquatic biological resources, it would be possible to improve economical performance of fishing and fish processing enterprises as well as social and other parameters of the region. Fish statistics data on the total catch of the main commercial species (mullets, Azov anchovy, Azov turbot, gobies, horse mackerel, red mullet) in the Black and Azov Seas Fishery Basin is presented for the period of 2009-2013 (Ukrainian jurisdiction) and 2015, when fishery enterprises conducted their activities under the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation. Advantages of those fishing methods and fishing gear, upgraded during the experimental and test works, are described. Existing drawbacks in the methods of coastal fishing are presented as well as the development options of more efficient fishing for coastal fishing enterprises in the Azov Sea and the Kerch Strait off the Crimean coasts.
  • Статистический анализ размерного состава уловов антарктического криля Euphausia superba в зависимости от орудий и технологии лова

    Korzun, Yu.V.; Panov, Boris (2017)
    Current Antarctic krill fisheries are carried out in the Atlantic Antarctic using conventional catch methods by means of midwater otter- and beam-trawls or continuous fishing technology. The mesh size in codend of these fishing gears ranges from 11 to 20 mm. As a result of such mesh size variety, there may be net selectivity. Spatial and temporal variability of krill length is observed in the fishing areas; it could overlap differences in the selectivity of fishing gear, including selectivity of mesh size in codends. Difference in the mean krill length in catches was insignificant, when mesh size in codend was 14 mm and conventional and continuous fishing methods were used. However, this difference was statistically significant under conditions of mesh size equaling 14, 16 and 20 mm. The number of small krill individuals was decreasing with the increase of mesh size in codend, and the percentage share of individuals in modal classes was increasing. It is possible that dissimilarities exist between the selectivity of codends with mesh size 14, 16 and 20 mm in relation to Antarctic krill length. However, krill samples, taken for fishery purposes from various fishing gears, can be considered identical and be combined into one unified sample for further investigation.
  • О создании морского охраняемого района (МОР) в регионе моря Росса под управлением АНТКОМ

    Kukharev, N.N.; Panov, Boris (2017)
    On October, 2016, at the 35th Session of CCAMLR, the member states of the Antarctic Commission adopted Conservation Measure 95-01 (2016) and agreed on the creation of a marine protected area (MPA) in the region of the Ross Sea and the adjacent areas westwards. The total area of the created MPA makes up 1.55 million sq. km or 452 thousand sq. mi. This area is located in high seas of the World Ocean and is not controlled by any state, which distinguishes this MPA from the other ones, currently existing in the waters under the jurisdiction of a number of states. It is expected that regulation of anthropogenic impact in the MPA area of the Ross Sea will be carried out by joint efforts of the CCAMLR member states. A prolonged discussion on this MPA creation started in 2011. As it progressed, Russia, Ukraine, China and Japan opposed to creation of MPAs in the Antarctic, justifying that there is no scientific rationale for their creation and it is not allowed by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea to place MPAs under the control of any state. A proposed alternative MPA model, which will be managed by an international organization, is still mostly provisional, despite its adoption by the CCAMLR member states. Nature of activities in such an MPA is defined by Conservation Measure 91-04 (2011) and is mostly of a proclamation approach. Various conservation trends for distribution areas, habitats, biocenoses, biodiversity, etc. serve as a basis of these activities. However, the Antarctic Convention does not expect such an activity from the member states, including the creation of MPAs. As well as the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea does not grant the states in high seas of the World Ocean the rights for marine resources conservation. Thus, the Antarctic Commission member states, claiming this Antarctic region to be an MPA and intending to protect it, went beyond the authority of the Antarctic Convention and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. It is allowed to continue toothfish fisheries in the created MPA, but in a significantly limited area. There is no reason to count on intensification of scientific activities of the Antarctic Convention member states, because it did not happen in the other Antarctic regions, which are now off-limits to fisheries. It is noted that primary proponents for MPAs creation and the states that supported that decision, pronounced their aims to protect living resources and ecosystems, while there is no hazard to either of them. It is reckoned that creation of such MPAs is mostly targeted at positive responses from international non-governmental organizations and global community. In case of CCAMLR plans implementation to cover all the Antarctic area with MPAs, existence of the Antarctic Commission as an organization regulating fisheries will lose its meaning.
  • Об экосистемном подходе АНТКОМ к управлению промыслом антарктического криля (обзор)

    Kukharev, N.N.; Korzun, Yu.V.; Zhuk, N.N.; Panov, Boris (2017)
    Current krill fisheries in the Antarctic is reviewed in the context of its direct anthropogenic influence on the ecosystem, but its effects have not been identified so far. Two stages in its development and management are identified. It is shown that the first stage of the Antarctic fish resources exploitation (1961-1982) covered the time span from the beginning of international fishing up to the creation of CCALMR. At the first stage, the USSR began extensive stock research studies (1961), trawl fishing, and Antarctic krill fisheries (1966-1973) in the Atlantic Antarctic and the Indian Ocean Antarctic. Starting from 1973, the vessels under the flags of Japan, Poland, Germany, the Republic of Korea, France, Chile, etc. joined the Soviet fishing. This stage is defined by the growth of unregulated and unrestricted fishing in the area, as flag states did not regulate fishing operations of their vessels. The highest trawl catches of marbled rockcod Notothenia rossii (400,000 tons in 1970) and Antarctic krill Euphausia superba (582,000 tons in 1982) were recorded during that period. From 1966 to 1982, 2.09 million tons of fish (notothens and white-blooded fish species) and 2.08 million tons of krill were totally caught in the Antarctic. It is noted that Antarctic fishing was developed simultaneously with whaling (1947-1987): about 1 million whale individuals were hunted in the area during this period. It is suggested that high-rate whaling was the most influential factor for the Antarctic ecosystem. Following the initiative of the states, participating in the Antarctic Treaty (1959) and concerned about anthropogenic influence on the Antarctic ecosystem, including rapid growth of krill catch, the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (the CCALMR Convention) was developed in 1980. The international organisation named Commission on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) was created on its basis in 1982. The second stage, from 1982 up to present days (2015), is defined as the beginning and development of regulatory activities of the Antarctic Commission that intended to regulate fishing operations in the Antarctic based on the ecosystem approach to fisheries management for the first time in the world practice. CCAMLR established the threshold krill catch limit at the level of 620,000 tons in the Atlantic Antarctic (FAO area 48), which makes up 1 % of the stock volume in the Atlantic Antarctic, assessed by CCALMR and equalling 60.3 million tons. It is estimated that krill catch at the threshold level will not harm the ecosystem. Modern krill catch is conducted according to the Olympic Creed. At the second stage, 1.327 million tons of fish and 5.821 million tons of krill were caught from 1983 to 2013. Average krill catches made up 244,000 tons, or 0.4 % of the stock in 2013-2015. Due to extremely low rates of annual krill catches as compared to its stock volumes in the area and due to the volumes of annual krill expatriation from adjacent areas to the areas of commercial fisheries and volumes of grazing by predators (catch share is estimated to be 1.6 % of the total consumption volume), CCALMR was unable to identify the evidence of both the impact exerted on the ecosystem components by fishing activities and the feedback, as required by the ecosystem approach to fisheries management. One of the reasons is the absence of survey data on more influential factors: changes in climate and currents force, ice coverage fluctuations, sea surface temperature increase, etc. In the context of data shortage, CCLAMR had to take precautionary approach to krill catch management, using an artificial component: criteria of precaution, derived from simulations, speculations and assumptions. Aiming at lowering the level of prospective local impact of fishing on predators, CCALMR distributed the threshold krill catch level for the Atlantic Antarctic (620,000 tons) between the quotas for four sub-areas. In case the threshold catch limit (620,000 tons) in the Atlantic Antarctic is reached, CCALMR recommends to restrict catches by the member states to the volumes of re-evaluated TAC (1.3 million tons), but to allocate it to small-scale management units (SSMUs). For another thing, the main catch has to be obtained in the areas out at sea. It is estimated that catch cost efficiency will be significantly reduced that way. Currently, international krill catch in the Atlantic Antarctic is a crucial component of total anthropogenic impact on this part of the Antarctic ecosystem, but its importance for the ecosystem is still unknown. Simultaneously, krill stock is significantly underexploited, and expansion of its catches seems promising. However, the increase of fishing vessels number in the Atlantic Antarctic, including those equipped for uninterrupted trawling, will lead to not only reaching threshold catch level, but also TAC in the near future. The question, whether CCALMR will be able to reconcile the interests of ecosystem conservation and catches development, remains unanswered. Up to present, not a single state and not a single international organisation on fishing management took up the ecosystem approach to fisheries management. Today, CCALMR is considered to be a pioneer in ecosystem approach development and attempts of its application. However, its implementation appeared to be almost impossible under the condition of absence of multi-annual expeditionary ecosystem monitoring. Now, since three decades after the CCALMR creation, it has to be acknowledged that real implementation of this approach in the Antarctic still has not happened. Expected development of international krill catch should be based on the results of marine ecosystem studies, and it is possible that international cooperation will be crucial to facilitate them. It is expected that, in case of significant increase in world krill consumption, its catches can become a permanent and principal factor for the ecosystem impact in certain areas of the Antarctic. In this case, a distinctive ecological regime, or «local fisheries ecosystem», will develop, and the humans will become dominant krill consumers.
  • Первая экспедиция керченских рыбаков в Атлантический океан и начало океанических исследований АзЧерНИРО

    Korzun, Yu.V.; Kukharev, N.N.; Panov, Boris (2017)
    The research of the World Ocean food resources commenced in 1958, when the scientists of AzCherNIRO (currently the Kerch Branch «YugNIRO» of FSBSI «AzNIIRKH») started the first Ukrainian fishery expedition into the Central Eastern Atlantic (CEA). The expedition consisted of three vessels: large refrigerator freezer trawler «Zhukovsky», medium fishing trawler «Grot» (a research vessel, which belonged to AzCherNIRO), and large Black Sea seiner «Zatvor». In order to investigate food resources of the Eastern Atlantic, a scientific group including 6 ichthyologists, hydrobiologists and oceanologists joined the expedition crew. The expedition program had been developed and approved in VNIRO (Moscow, Russia). It was scheduled to carry out fishing works on the shelf of Africa from the Strait of Gibraltar to the port of Capetown. For the first time, those works were performed during autumn-winter (Northern Hemisphere). Earlier, no Soviet fishing vessel had been conducting fisheries during that period; the fishing areas had also been unknown. The expedition set off from Kerch on October 16, 1958. Its principal task was to implement the catch plan, which was performed prior to the schedule. This led to the reduction of both fishing areas and scientific investigations scope. However, altogether 48 oceanographic stations were performed; data on hydrology and hydrochemistry were obtained; samples of plankton, benthos, and ground types were collected; materials for further research of fish nutrition, age, population structure and histological analyses were prepared. Exhibits of the tropic fauna enriched not only the AzCherNIRO museum collections, but also those of numerous institutions and universities. Fish catches exceeded the plan by 27 %; totally, 825 t of fish was processed. All the vessels got back to Kerch on February 14, 1959. The expedition confirmed good fish stocks in the shelf waters off Western Africa and proved that in the CEA it could be feasible to conduct very efficient trawl and purse fishing during the whole year. The expedition results were used as essential basis for further large-scale Soviet fisheries in this area and planning of oceanic research in AzCherNIRO.
  • Первая документированная поимка сельдевой акулы Lamna nasus в открытых водах Юго-Западной Атлантики над подводным северным хребтом Скотия (банка Дэвиса) с замечаниями о популяционной структуре вида в Южном полушарии

    Usachev, S.I.; Panov, Boris (2017)
    The first documented evidence of the porbeagle shark, Lamna nasus (Chondrichthyes, Lamnidae) in the area of the North Scotia Ridge (Southwest Atlantic) is presented. Data on morphometric analysis and plastic features of the identified L. nasus are provided. The porbeagle shark (1 ind.) was caught during the target fishing of the Patagonian toothfish Dissostichus eleginoides in April 2009. The detected coloration peculiarities make it obvious that the so called «black-faced» specimens of Lamna nasus occur in the southern areas of all the oceans and evidence their circumglobal distribution in the Southern Hemisphere.
  • Параметры роста южной светящейся акулы (Etmopterus granulosus Günther, 1880) на подводных поднятиях умеренной зоны Индийского океана

    Rebik, S.T.; Panov, Boris (2017)
    A length-weight relationship and mean values of the length in different age cohorts of the southern lanternshark (Etmopterus granulosus Günther, 1880) were identified. The rates of its linear and weight growth were calculated. Analysis of length composition of the southern lanternshark during the large-scale survey measurements on board the vessel, operating on the underwater seamounts of the Broken Ridge (31 longline sets) and the West-Indian Ridge (80 longline sets) at the depth range of 1050-1600 m in March-April of 2008, allowed to find out that its length varied within 35-87 cm, and the specimens of 55-75 cm comprised the most part of the catches. Length-weight relationship in the southern lanternshark population is described by a parabolic curve of the form W = 0.0034  TL3.112. The points, corresponding to age cohorts from 1 to 8 years, are marked on the variation curve. Having calculated the growth rates of the studied species using von Bertalanffy equation, the following values were estimated: maximum estimated length = 91.9 cm, maximum estimated weight = 4,378 g, the relative growth rate parameter = 0.2293, the lanternshark age at the «zero length» = -1.1225 years. The estimated rates made it possible to calculate the age for a southern lanternshark of maximum length (87), which made up 12 years.
  • Таксономический состав ихтиофауны Восточно-Индийского подводного хребта

    Timokhin, I.G.; Usachev, S.I.; Novikov, N.P.; Rebik, S.T.; Panov, Boris (2017)
    The most complete list of the ichthyofauna taxonomic composition in the Ninety East Ridge is presented based on literature data and results from 9 research expeditions carried out by YugNIRO and «Yugrybpromrazvedka» (South Fish Exploratory Service, Kerch) in 1976-1988. Altogether, 320 trawlings were conducted mainly in the southern part of the ridge at the depth range of 120-2000 m. In total, 192 species from 77 families associated with different biotope groups have been reported. Data on vertical distribution, frequency of occurrence in catches as well as brief biological properties of most mass species belonging to Myctophidae, Alepocephalidae, Ophidiidae, and Macrouridae families are given. 13,000 fish specimens were processed, measured (body length and weight) and analyzed (sex and gonad stage determination, stomach contents analysis, etc.). Degree of similarity with ichthyofaunas from another underwater rises in the Indian Ocean is considered. The research results showed that thalassobathyal fauna of the Ninety East Ridge is characterized by a high degree of similarity with those from the West-Indian Ridge and Mozambique Ridge. Coefficient of faunistic similarity within the families made up 43 and 48 %, within the genera – 25 and 35 %, within the species – 20 and 28 %, correspondingly.
  • Характеристика динамики численности и биомассы мидий (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Lamarck, 1819) при выращивании на различных типах коллекторов

    Zolotnitskiy, A.P.; Kryuchkov, V.G.; Sytnik, N.A.; Gorbenko, V.A.; Grishchenko, A.V.; Panov, Boris (2017)
    The Black Sea mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck) biomass and abundance dynamics on artificial substrates with different relative surface area (area size of 1 linear meter of a given collector in relation to 1 m2 of an artificial substrate – S/S0) were studied. The values of mussel reproductive potential during its settlement stage are characterized, which equaled 0.025 day-1 for type I of the collector, and increased up to 0.054 day-1 for type II. It is shown that, during the cultivation process, biological parameters of mussel populations varied significantly. It was determined that the abundance of molluscs on the collector of type I was steadily decreasing after spat settlement and subsequent cultivation process; it reached a certain stationary state, making up 258 ± 56 ind./m. By contrast, mussel biomass was increasing, and it reached a similar state under the value of 2.86 ± 0.64 kg/m. These parameters were much higher on the collector of type II, where the stationary density was 1482 + 108 ind./m, and the biomass was 9.96 ± 1.70 kg/m. At the same time, individual mean length and mass parameters of mussels on the collectors with  = 0.09 were, respectively, 45.1 mm and 11.7 m, whereas they were much lower (35.94 mm and 5.94 g) on the ones with  = 0.34. Based on the obtained data, it was concluded that during the mussel culture, the studied processes are regulated by intrapopulation factors, depending on population density, that is intraspecific competition for a substrate among the specimens.
  • The Azov anchovy proteins enzymatic hydrolysis modes development

    Vinnov, A.S.; Chernyavskaya, S.L.; Krivonos, O.N.; Panov, Boris (2017)
    The research was aimed to assess the Azov anchovy proteins enzymatic hydrolysis effectiveness using industrial photolytic enzyme agent protosubtilin G3x. Raw fish chemical composition was clarified, protein enzymatic hydrolysis products accumulation dynamic at various process conditions was studied, enzymatic hydrolysis optimum parameters for different process indicators were determined. Raw fish chemical composition studies detected high fat amount (near 14 %) with proteins content. As a result of a three-factor orthogonal central composite experimental design application while determining Azov anchovy proteins enzymatic hydrolysis modes, second order adequate models were received. Enzymatic hydrolysis process parameters optimization using simplex method with regression equations maximization as objective function showed that the low molecular protein fragments maximum accumulation is observed at hydrolysis duration 403 minutes, hydronic module – 7 % and enzyme drag dose 0.22 %. To maximize the accumulation of heat-resistant protein fragments in Azov anchovy hydrolysates, enzymolysis optimal modes should be: process duration – 403 min, enzyme agent dosage – 0.59 % and high hydronic module – 56 %. The maximum protein hydrolysis degree can be obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis duration 403 minutes, enzyme agent dose 0.50 % and hydronic module equal to 4.0 %. The revealed differences of optimum process modes for accepted indicators are obviously connected with the complex collection of enzymatic processes in multi-component enzyme-substrate system for which diffusion and multi-stage competitive enzyme inhibition by various reaction products is possible.
  • Результаты выращивания двухлеток черноморского калкана (Psetta maeotica maeotica Pallas) в условиях бассейнового хозяйства НИБ ФГБНУ «ЮгНИРО»

    Turkulova, V.N.; Bobova, A.S.; Panov, Boris (2017)
    The Black Sea turbot (Psetta maeotica maeotica Pallas) two-yearlings culture in the basin farm (YugNIRO, Kerch Strait, Black Sea) is presented for the period from April to October, 2013. The Black Sea turbot was cultured under conditions of natural water salinity variations (from 15.0 to 18.2 ‰). The temperature mode was regulated by means of the basin water heating in winter and its cooling in summer. In April the number of yearlings reached 77 individuals, in October the number of two-yearlings made up 65 individuals. The turbot was fed on the trout formula feed produced by BioMar (Denmark). During the turbot two-yearlings culture period, four test samplings were made in order to determine their linear-weight parameters, physiological state of the fish and their survival rate; each test sampling ranged from 10 to 65 ind. It is found out that the temperature ranging from 16 to 20 °С is optimal for vital functions and growth of the Black Sea turbot during the warm season, which proves literature data on its culture technology. Under the indicated temperature range, maximum survival rate (84 %) and growth rates of body length and weight (5.18 g and 176 cm, correspondingly) are recorded. The feed coefficient ranged from 1.2 to 1.8 units. Possibility of the Black Sea turbot replacement stock culture using the Kerch Strait water is shown.
  • Результаты выращивания четырехлеток пиленгаса в условиях бассейнового хозяйства научно-исследовательской базы ФГБНУ «ЮгНИРО» в вегетационный период 2015 года

    Zaichenko, E.A.; Panov, Boris (2017)
    Выращивание четырехлеток пиленгаса проводили в условиях бассейнового хозяйства с плотностью посадки 5 экз./м3, 6 экз./м2. Для кормления четырехлеток использовали форелевый продукционный комбикорм крымского производителя. Кормовой коэффициент вычисляли путем деления фактических затрат комбикорма на прирост пиленгаса между контрольными обловами. В вегетационный период 2015 г. температура воды в бассейнах имела минимальные значения в апреле и октябре (9-10 °С), а максимальные – в июле-августе (23-24 °С). Соленость воды варьировала от 14,5 до 18 ‰. Установлено, что при выращивании четырехлеток пиленгаса в проточных бассейнах с морской водой на фоне естественного изменения температуры и солености отмечаются высокие показатели выживаемости и темпа роста. При этом рост четырехлеток пиленгаса определяется в большей степени температурным режимом и составом комбикорма, чем показателями солености воды. Эффективность кормления и максимальные приросты по массе и длине тела наблюдаются в диапазоне температуры 22-24 °С. Для дальнейшего выращивания ремонтных групп пиленгаса рекомендуется использовать экспериментальный корм, изготовленный из хамсы, добытой крымскими промысловиками. С учетом экономических санкций это позволит решить проблему приобретения высококачественных комбикормов европейского производителя.
  • Современное состояние запасов жаброногого рачка артемии (Artemia salina L.) в соленых озерах Республики Крым

    Semik, A.M.; Ushakova, A.O.; Panov, Boris (2017)
    Приводятся данные о соленых озерах Красноперекопского (оз. Айгульское, оз. Кирлеутское), Сакского (оз. Ойбурское, оз. Аджибайчикское, оз. Соленое) и Ленинского (оз. Акташское) районов Республики Крым. Материалы получены в результате мониторинговых съемок, выполненных в 2016 г. Всего собрано и обработано 97 зоопланктонных и 97 бентосных проб. По литературным данным дана биология жаброногого рачка артемии Artemia salina. Рассмотрена структура популяции артемии в соленых озерах Республики Крым в различные сезоны года. На основе проведенных исследований в соленых озерах Крыма даны оценки удельной численности, биомассы и запасов артемии и артемии (на стадии цист). Общий запас рачков артемии в соленых озерах Крыма составил 781,28 т, артемии на стадии цист – 541,79 т.
  • Исследование объемов водных биологических ресурсов (артемия, хирономиды) в заливе Сиваш

    Semik, A.M.; Zamyatina, E.A.; Panov, Boris (2017)
    В статье изучены основные продукционные показатели популяции жаброногого рачка артемии (Artemia salina) и личинок хирономид (Chironomus salinarius) в заливе Сиваш (Крым, Азовское море). По материалам 2016 г. приводятся удельная численность и биомасса взрослых особей артемии, артемии на стадии цист и личинок хирономид, их возрастной и половой состав, а также размерно-массовый анализ. Для Западного и Южного Сиваша даны общие запасы водных биоресурсов как рачков артемии, так и артемии на стадии цист и личинок хирономид. Учитывая площадь Западного Сиваша, примыкающую к Крымскому побережью, общий запас рачков артемии определен на уровне 68,3 т, артемии на стадии цист – 2733 т (2 т в планктоне и 2731 т в бентосе). В Южном Сиваше (у пос. Соляное) общий запас артемии на стадии цист оценен в размере 1 т. Общий запас хирономид в Западном Сиваше составляет 13822 т (3 т в планктоне и 13819 т в бентосе), в Южном Сиваше (у пос. Изобильное) – 165,3 т.
  • Особенности развития зоопланктонного сообщества соленого Акташского озера

    Semik, A.M.; Ushakova, A.O.; Panov, Boris (2017)
    На основании мониторинговых съемок в 2012-2013 и 2015 гг. проанализировано состояние зоопланктонного сообщества оз. Акташское (Керченский полуостров, Крым, Азовское море). Зоопланктон собирали на 4 участках водоема, различающихся по гидролого-гидрохимическому режиму. Всего обработано 78 проб. За исследованный период в оз. Акташское было обнаружено 10 видов зоопланктонных организмов: жаброногие раки (1 вид), веслоногие раки (3), ветвистоусые раки (1), усоногие раки (1), разноногие раки (2), коловратки (1) и личинки двустворчатых моллюсков (1). Рассмотрено видовое разнообразие зоопланктона в различных частях водоема, сезонные изменения численности и биомассы отмеченных гидробионтов (Artemia salina, Moina micrura, Dikerogammarus haemobaphes и др.), а также их практическое значение. В видовом разнообразии озера преобладали ракообразные (80 %). Среди ракообразных доминировали веслоногие раки (37,5 %). Наибольшим видовым разнообразием отличался мелководный 3-й участок (восточная часть озера) – 6 видов, наименьшее количество видов (1) зарегистрировано на центральном 4-ом участке. Отмечено, что с повышением солености вод в оз. Акташском видовое разнообразие снижается. Указано, что рассмотренные виды способны переносить значительные перепады солености, а также формировать покоящиеся яйца для переживания неблагоприятных условий среды.

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