Now showing items 1-20 of 36744

    • Massive stranding of Physalia physalis (Hydrozoa: Physaliidae) on the Northwestern coast of Cuba.

      Torres-Conde, Eduardo Gabriel; Rodríguez-Martínez, Rosa E. (2024)
      Revista de Investigaciones Marinas
      Historically, Physalis physalis (Linnæus, 1758) massive stranding events have been either infrequent or poorly documented. However, their occurrence can significantly affect human health and the stability of coastal ecosystems. This study analyzes a massive P. physalis stranding that affected Cuba’s NW coast in December 2022. During the event, eighty-five people were stung, with 38 having strong allergic reactions. To determine P. physalis abundance, we counted all colonies during the massive event along ~ 3 km coast within a 5 m strip. Density, dimorphic form (left/right-handed), and colony size were quantified using a 0,25 m2 quadrat placed every 50 m, 10 m from the shoreline. Over ten thousand beach cast colonies were recorded, making this the event with the highest mean colony density (29,3 per m2) ever reported. The massive stranding coincided with the lowest Arctic Oscillation index (-2,59) in the past 11 years during December, which led to northeasterly winds reaching up to 24 km/h, which might have favored the landings. Wind direction and speed, coupled with the dominance of left-handed colonies (71,4%), suggest the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre as a possible origin source of the bloom. The high prevalence of juvenile P. physalis colonies (68%) likely aligns with the autumn breeding season in the northern hemisphere. The potential causes of P. physalis blooms are still poorly understood. Systematic monitoring of the distribution and abundance of this species should be a research priority considering the potential risk to human health and the fact that the blooms could become more frequent on the Atlantic coasts due to its eutrophication and climate change.
    • Reproducción y tallas mínimas de captura en esponjas comerciales: razones para el incremento de la esponjicultura cubana.

      Lopeztegui-Castillo, Alexander (2024)
      Revista de Investigaciones Marinas
      El desconocimiento de los procesos reproductivos y la talla de madurez sexual de las esponjas comerciales de baño (familia Spongiidae) en Cuba constituye, actualmente, una limitante para el adecuado manejo de la pesquería de estas especies. El objetivo de esta revisión fue compilar la información existente sobre reproducción de esponjas comerciales, experiencias de repoblación basados en sistemas de cultivo, y el establecimiento de tallas mínimas de captura. La información acumulada posibilitó identificar vacíos en el conocimiento regional, inferir tallas límite para regular la actividad extractiva en Cuba y elaborar una propuesta de medidas coyunturales que minimicen el riesgo del colapso en la pesquería cubana de esponjas. Se comprobó que urge la realización de estudios histológicos, citológicos y de supervivencia larval en las especies cubanas. Además, se corroboró que una talla mínima legal de 15 cm de diámetro mayor se corresponde con los estándares internacionales actualmente establecidos para esponjas comerciales de otras regiones y, por tanto, contribuiría a mejorar el rendimiento pesquero sin mayores afectaciones al potencial reproductivo de las poblaciones en explotación. Sin embargo, la extracción de esponjas menores (a 15 cm de diámetro mayor) podría hacer colapsar la población por generar fallas en el reclutamiento y afectaciones desconocidas en los procesos reproductivos poblacionales. La implementación definitiva del cultivo de esponjas a escala nacional es la solución más plausible y biológicamente aceptable para la obtención de las esponjas de pequeña talla, que satisfacen de mejor manera las actuales demandas del mercado internacional.
    • Estado actual de las pesquerías cubanas de peces costeros: 1970-2020.

      Ramos, Ibis; Baisre, Julio A. (2024)
      Revista de Investigaciones Marinas
      Existe una necesidad urgente de evaluar el estado de las poblaciones de peces de aguas costeras tropicales, donde la pesca se realiza sobre cientos de especies diferentes que viven en ecosistemas diversos y complejos. Utilizando un método basado en las capturas, originalmente empleado por la FAO para evaluar el estado de las pesquerías mundiales, este trabajo analiza el estado de las pesquerías de peces costeros de Cuba. El análisis de las series de capturas de 15 especies y grupos seleccionados, que se extiende por 50 años, muestra un pico máximo en 1975 y luego un decrecimiento significativo de las capturas (R2 = 0.7811). La evolución de cada fase de desarrollo de las pesquerías, utilizando dos criterios diferentes: el porcentaje del número de recursos en cada fase y el porcentaje de las capturas de cada recurso que se encuentra en cada fase, muestra el continuado incremento en la proporción de recursos plenamente explotados, sobreexplotados y colapsados, y atestigua la rapidez con que casi todos han llegado a sus límites máximos de explotación, con un decrecimiento total de un 47 %, que equivale a recursos plenamente explotados aunque próximos a la sobreexplotación. Como promedio, las capturas de todas las especies y grupos muestran una declinación próxima al 50 % y una tasa anual de declinación del 1.1 % anual. A pesar de los sesgos potenciales de utilizar solamente datos de captura, el elevado número de especies involucradas en la pesca comercial, la larga serie de datos y la metodología utilizada, proporcionan una información valiosa para los administradores pesqueros.
    • Salud de los corales y su investigación en el Caribe y en Cuba.

      Aguilera-Pérez, Gabriela C.; González-Díaz, Patricia (2024)
      Revista de Investigaciones Marinas
      La salud de los corales es un tema de gran importancia en el Caribe y en Cuba, ya que estos ecosistemas marinos son vitales para la biodiversidad y la economía de la región. Los arrecifes de coral albergan una gran variedad de especies. Sin embargo, constituyen un ecosistema bajo amenaza debido a la combinación de diferentes factores, como el cambio climático, la contaminación, la sobrepesca y la acidificación del océano. El Caribe es considerado un “punto caliente” para las enfermedades, debido a la rápida aparición y virulencia de nuevos síndromes en la región en las últimas décadas. Cuba no se encuentra exenta de este panorama. Aun así, los estudios realizados han demostrado que los porcentajes de afectación por enfermedades son bajos y el número de enfermedades reportado para sus arrecifes también es bajo, en comparación a lo reportado para otros sitios del Caribe. Es por lo que este trabajo tiene como objetivo recopilar información actualizada sobre el estado de salud de los corales en el Caribe y en Cuba. La sistematicidad y la constancia en el monitoreo de los arrecifes constituye una urgencia en aras de conocer el estado de salud en que se encuentran, manejarlos de manera sostenible y así evitar daños irreparables que conlleven a su pérdida definitiva. Planes de conservación que combinen un manejo efectivo con iniciativas de ciencia ciudadana han demostrado ser sostenibles y beneficiosos, tanto para los arrecifes como para la sociedad.
    • Exploring marine mollusc drilling predation: insights into predator-prey dynamics and selective pressures in gastropod shell assemblages of Playa Guardalavaca, Cuba.

      Diez, Yander L.; Rodríguez-Santos, Yodanis; Catalá, Alejandro; Gordillo, Sandra (2024)
      Revista de Investigaciones Marinas
      Predation marks by drilling molluscs serve as evidence for feeding activity. This behaviour has been extensively studied to understand predator-prey relationships. The objective of this study is to characterise the mollusc drilling predation on gastropods from Playa Guardalavaca, Cuba. We examined the species richness and abundance of drilled and non-drilled shells and calculated predation rates and its relationship with prey size. To compare drilled and non-drilled shells, we used the median and interquartile range due to the asymmetric distribution of the measurements. Furthermore, we employed a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to compare the size distribution frequencies. A total of 114 morphospecies and nine species groups were identified. Five species were identified as new records for the area. A total of 5,795 shells were quantified, out of which 24.4% displayed drillholes. The most abundant species are not the most preyed upon, presenting a distinct pattern compared to bivalve assemblages in this and other locations. The highest predation rate was observed among individuals of medium size, may be attributed to the predators' ability to manipulate their prey. Smaller shells may not offer sufficient food resources, resulting in lower predation rates. Statistical analyses revealed significant differences in predation related to shell size for six out of the 11 tested species. Potential predators were identified, some of which exhibit drillholes themselves. In general, drilling predation in gastropods from the studied area appears to be influenced by a combination of factors, including high species richness of both predators and prey, prey abundance, specialised feeding strategies of predators, and habitat diversity.
    • Turnover e aninhamento de hifomicetos aquáticos em riachos subtropicais de diferentes usos da terra.

      Rasvailer, Vinícius da Silva (Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Departamento de Biologia. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquáticos Continentais., 2024)
      Streams, small rivers, are endowed with exclusive energetic dynamics: decomposition of allochthonous material, and formation of microhabitats and ecotones between aquatic communities and riparian vegetation. Regarding this input of organic matter, aquatic fungi make up most of the biomass of organic matter decomposers, they are biomineralizers of foliar nutrients and through decomposition link the matter to the entire trophic network. Aquatic fungi are a polyphyletic group adapted to this environment, and have different taxonomic levels grouped together. These microorganisms are the target of ecological studies due to their important, still their spatial distribution still lacks elucidation, as well as the influence of limnological on biotic parameters. The fungal communities, composition and beta diversity, were investigated in this study separated into two approaches: i) the beta diversity of aquatic fungi in streams under different land uses; ii) the nesting of fungal eDNA sequences in a protected area and an impacted area. The biotic data were obtained from leaf mixes, and represent the biodiversity of the aquatic FUNGA present in streams of the Atlantic Forest, being pioneering studies for the subtropical region. Furthermore, the results may contribute as a basis for future studies within the mycology of aquatic environments. Approach I, in a taxonomic approach, demonstrated fungal diversity in presence of ambiental heterogeneity. Approach II, through metabarcoding, demonstrates the sensitivity of the use of genomic databases in ecological analyses. The results presented here reinforce the need for management and conservation plans for riparian vegetation, which forms the aquatic microecosystem, used by fungi for their decomposition and other ecosystem functions.
    • Impactos das mudanças globais nos ecossistemas aquáticos: uma análise das respostas de microrganismos sob diferentes estressores ambientais.

      Matos, Matheus Henrique de Oliveira de (Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Departamento de Biologia. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquáticos Continentais., 2024)
      Environmental changes occur at a global level and are enhanced by human activities, with significant impacts on natural ecosystems by affecting the temperature, nutrient load and input of organic debris in freshwater bodies or aquatic systems. In the first section, we investigated the impacts of increased temperature, nutrient input, predation by fish and a reduction in organic detritus on the community of testate amoebae, rotifers and periphytic cladocerans over 49 experimental days. The second section analyzed the effects of increased temperature, nutrient input and reduced organic detritus on the testate amoeba community during 160 experimental days. The experiments were carried out in mesocosms with three temperature conditions: control (referring to the ambient temperature), constant increase of +4°C and fluctuation between 2°C and 6°C above the control, with and without enrichment by nitrogen and phosphorus, and reduction of organic detritus, controlled by previous additions of this detritus. In relation to the results of the first section, the density of the groups analyzed was significantly impacted by the increase in temperature, while the other stressors explored in this work did not represent a significant influence on the abundance of the communities. As for community composition, the presence of nutrients had a more predominant impact on community structure, although specific species distribution patterns were not identified. For the second section, it was evident that warming resulted in a reduction in species diversity (demonstrated by the Shannon index), with a tendency for species richness to decrease in the face of this stressor. On the other hand, nutrient enrichment was responsible for an increase in richness, with time being a relevant factor in this context. As for changes in community density, nutrients and time emerged as the main factors influencing these changes. Analysis of species diversity using the Shannon index revealed greater diversity in the temperature control treatments, with time exerting a significant influence on community structure throughout the experiment. For species composition, the βtotal diversity analysis highlighted the importance of temperature, presence of detritus and time. The βrepl and βrich components were notably affected by temperature and time, indicating changes in species identity.
    • Situación actual y proyecciones futuras de las pesquerías multiespecíficas de peces en la región suroriental de Cuba.

      Alzugaray, Romina; Puga, Rafael; Valle, Servando; Hernández-Betancourt, Aracely; Boné, Eduardo; Kleisner, Kristin; Manguin, Tracey; Karr, Kendra A. (2023)
      Brazilian Journal of Animal and Environmental Research
      Las pesquerías multiespecíficas de peces en Cuba incluyen alrededor de 150 especies, diferentes artes de pesca que se utilizan simultáneamente y un número elevado de puertos de desembarques, lo que dificulta el monitoreo y la evaluación de estos recursos, por lo cual el manejo ha sido limitado. Por ello nos propusimos evaluar el estado actual, así como las compensaciones futuras en biomasa, captura y ganancias de las especies más vulnerables bajo diferentes estrategias de manejo. Mediante el método Catch-MSY se estimó el estado actual, y un modelo bioeconómico se empleó para realizar las proyecciones a largo plazo de las salidas. Los stocks estudiados se encuentran agotados, y la mayoría con valores que implican un alto riesgo para la sustentabilidad de sus poblaciones. Además, la mayoría están sobreexplotados y sufren pesca ilegal. Sin embargo, a largo plazo bajo estrategias de manejo sustentable, muestran oportunidades de recuperación y de tener pesquerías económicamente rentables siempre que se elimine la pesca ilegal y se apliquen incentivos económicos.
    • Caracterización de tricodínidos como peligros biológicos durante el estadio de alevinaje de Clarias gariepinus cultivadas en Cuba.

      Rodríguez-Vara, Eolian M.; Prats León, Fernando Lucas; Martínez Pérez, Mercedes; Silveira Coffigny, Raquel; Solórzano Álvarez, Ernestina (2023)
      AquaTechnica
      La bioseguridad en la acuicultura se ocupa de la gestión de la sanidad de los animales acuáticos y la reducción de los riesgos a la salud pública asociados con la producción y el consumo de productos acuícolas. Particularmente, las enfermedades son un tema de atención en todo sistema de cría y producción de animales. En la acuicultura cubana, una de las especies ícticas de mayor importancia es el pez gato africano Clarias gariepinus. Esta especie introducida es afectada por protozoos ciliados parásitos de la familia Trichodinidae durante los primeros estadios de vida. El presente trabajo se trazó como objetivo, identificar y caracterizar las especies de tricodínidos que afectan el cultivo de C. gariepinus en la estación de alevinaje La Juventud, Provincia Pinar del Río, Cuba. Dichas especies identificadas y caracterizadas fueron T. heterodentata, T. acuta y T. merciae, las cuales son consideradas peligros biológicos para el cultivo de este pez. Estos resultados constituyen el primer paso para desarrollar un análisis de riesgo que garantice un manejo adecuado de la bioseguridad en las estaciones acuícolas.
    • R/V Oceanus Cruise #473 ‘Ocean Acidification Pteropod Study’ Cruise Report

      Lawson, Gareth; Wiebe, Peter; Wang, Zhaohui Aleck; Lavery, Andone; Maas, Amy Elizabeth; Blanco-Bercial, Leocadio; Hoering, Katherine A.; Copley, Nancy; Fincke, Jonathan; White, Timothy; et al. (2011)
      The central goal of this cruise was to sample various aspects of the biology of pteropods and other associated zooplankton concurrent to sampling of the carbonate chemistry system and hydrography, both along-track and at pre-defined stations along a survey transect extending from 35N, 52W to 50N, 42W.
    • R/V New Horizon Cruise #1208 ‘Ocean Acidification Pteropod Study’ Cruise Report

      Lawson, Gareth; Wiebe, Peter; Wang, Zhaohui Aleck; Lavery, Andone; Maas, Amy Elizabeth; Copley, Nancy; Blanco-Bercial, Leocadio; Hoering, Katherine A.; Bolmer, Tom; Chu, Sophie; et al. (2012)
      The central goal of this cruise was to sample various aspects of the biology of pteropods and other associated zooplankton concurrent to sampling of the carbonate chemistry system and hydrography, both along-track and at pre-defined stations along a survey transect extending from 50N, 150W to 35N, 135W.
    • Phylogenetic systematics of Mesonauta Günther 1862 (Cichliformes: Cichlidae: Cichlinae).

      Oliveira, Rianne Caroline de (Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Departamento de Biologia. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquáticos Continentais., 2024)
      Cichlids have evolved into models for studying the evolutionary history of Neotropical fish. Many authors attempted to recover the group's phylogeny using morphological and molecular data, presenting satisfying solutions across a wide range of genera. However, intrageneric relationships remain obscure in a number of genus, potentially complicating species delimitation. Mesonauta presents six distinct species that are highly valued by aquarists. Currently, there is no proposed phylogenetic relationship between its species; however, it has a wide geographic distribution and phenotypic variations, with the possibility of new species not yet described. Species of the genus were delimited using molecular and morphometric data from preserved and deposited species in ichthyological collections. From the six previously described species, COI delimitate different species, since two of them (Mesonauta egregius and M. guyanae) were not corroborated by delimitation analysis and two are putative new species, showing six different species: M. mirificus, M. festivus, Mesonauta sp. “Pantanal”, M. acora, Mesonauta sp. “Amapá” and M. insignis. The results showed a new basis for studies within the genus and further research is needed to understand the wide distribution of M. mirificus. Mesonauta's monophyly was tested and the relationships between species by constructing concatenated cladograms based on molecular characters (COI, 16S) using three phylogenetic methods, from which two main clades were recovered a new species of Mesonauta was described from the Amapá Grande river basin, based on morphological and molecular characteristics, in a region affected by the presence of mercury. This is the first step in investigating the molecular phylogeny of Mesonauta, which showed intrageneric relationships based on molecular data, enabled the description of a new species of the genus and provided information for future research on the evolutionary history of the group.
    • Patterns of parasitic infections in fish from a floodplain: use of functional traits and phylogeny from fish and parasites.

      Lehun, Atsler Luana (Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Departamento de Biologia. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquáticos Continentais., 2024)
      Functional traits are the measurable properties of organisms that influence their performance through their effects on individual growth, survival, and reproduction. Therefore, the choice of functional characteristics is essential for drawing solid ecological conclusions and predicting ecosystem properties and interactions between organisms. The structure of the parasite community can vary over time and space, resulting from variations in host characteristics, phylogenetic relationships, and environmental characteristics. These can be examined at different levels of diversity: alpha (local diversity) and beta (variation in community composition between locations), including multiple facets such as taxonomic (TD), functional (FD), and phylogenetic (PD). We evaluated which host characteristics may be determinant in the composition of fish parasites from the upper Paraná River floodplain; and compared different facets of endoparasite biodiversity at the sampling unit level (α diversity or parasite diversity at the level of an individual host) and between sampling units (parasite diversity within (β1) or between (β2) host individuals of a species). The host's diet was the factor that had the greatest influence on the composition and similarity of endoparasites in floodplain fish. The α diversity of endoparasite species differed mainly in terms of TD and PPD. Regarding β diversity, the parasite communities presented patterns grouped at different levels (β1 and β2, respectively). To explain patterns in endoparasite diversity, functional traits, and fish phylogeny act as drivers of parasite community structure, with diet being one of the main factors. And the assembly patterns in the endoparasite infracommunities of different floodplain host species reflect the characteristics of their component and composite communities.
    • Warm conveyor belt activity over the Pacific: modulation by the Madden–Julian Oscillation and impact on tropical–extratropical teleconnections

      Quinting, Julian F.; Grams, Christian M.; Kar-Man Chang, Edmund; Pfahl, Stephan; Wernli, Heini (2024)
      Weather and Climate Dynamics
      Research in the last few decades has revealed that rapidly ascending airstreams in extratropical cyclones – socalled warm conveyor belts (WCBs) – play an important role in extratropical atmospheric dynamics. However on the subseasonal timescale, the modulation of their occurrence frequency, henceforth referred to as WCB activity, has so far received little attention. Also, it is not yet clear whether WCB activity may affect tropospheric teleconnection patterns, which constitute a source of predictability on this subseasonal timescale. Using reanalysis data, this study analyzes the modulation of WCB activity by the Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO). A key finding is that WCB activity increases significantly over the western North Pacific when the convection of the MJO is located over the Indian Ocean. This increased WCB activity, which is stronger during La Niña conditions, is related to enhanced poleward moisture fluxes driven by the circulation of subtropical Rossby gyres associated with the MJO. In contrast, when the convection of the MJO is located over the western North Pacific, WCB activity increases significantly over the eastern North Pacific. This increase stems from a southward shift and eastward extension of the North Pacific jet stream. However, while these mean increases are significant, individual MJO events exhibit substantial variability, with some events even exhibiting anomalously low WCB activity. Individual events of the same MJO phase with anomalously low WCB activity over the North Pacific tend to be followed by the known canonical teleconnection patterns in the Atlantic–European region; i.e., the occurrence frequency of the positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is enhanced when convection of the MJO is located over the Indian Ocean and similarly for the negative phase of the NAO when MJO convection is over the western North Pacific. However, the canonical teleconnection patterns are modified when individual events of the same MJO phase are accompanied by anomalously high WCB activity over the North Pacific. In particular, the link between MJO and the negative phase of the NAO weakens considerably. Reanalysis data and experiments with an idealized general circulation model reveal that this is related to anomalous ridge building over western North America favored by enhanced WCB activity. Overall, our study highlights the potential role of WCBs in shaping tropical–extratropical teleconnection patterns and underlines the importance of representing them adequately in numerical weather prediction models in order to fully exploit the sources of predictability emerging from the tropics.
    • 5 Passos para Incentivar a Cultura Oceânica nas Escolas

      Martins Morais, Alice; Isensee, Marcio; Bragança, Daniele (Eco e Mare de Ciencia, 2023)
      O OCEANO QUE PRECISAMOS PARA O FUTURO QUE QUEREMOS Este é o slogan usado pelas Nações Unidas (ONU) para sensibilização em campanha da Década da ONU de Ciência Oceânica para o Desenvolvimento Sustentável, também co- nhecida como Década do Oceano. Você já ou- viu falar? A Década foi declarada pelas Nações Unidas em 2017 e está sendo implementada de 2021 até 2030, com o objetivo de ser um período que deixe o assunto sempre em evidência, ga- rantindo que a ciência oceânica possa apoiar os países na implementação da Agenda 2030 para o desenvolvimento sustentável. Sabe quando os profissionais da escola se únem antes do início das aulas (o famoso pla- nejamento anual), para fazer uma espécie de intensivão para alinhar as metas, estratégias e “deixar a casa em ordem”? É basicamente para isso que foi instituída a Década do Oceano, resumindo de forma bem simples. É um jeito simbólico de incentivar que toda a sociedade se una, durante dez anos, para promover a conservação do oceano e a gestão dos recursos naturais de zonas costeiras. Dessa forma, o planeta pode atingir os Objetivos de Desenvolvimento Sustentável (ODS). À primeira vista, isso tudo pode parecer um tema muito complexo e de competência ape- nas de governos e cúpulas internacionais. Mas, enquanto as decisões são tomadas em escala global, é no local, na nossa prática, que as ações tomam vida. As pequenas ações do cotidiano podem fazer uma grande diferença, especialmente quando falamos do ambien- te escolar, um dos espaços mais importantes para formar gerações de cidadãos e transfor- mar o mundo em um lugar melhor, não acha? Este ebook traz, resumidamente, um guia dos primeiros passos a se dar para incentivar a cul- tura oceânica na sua escola, dando uma mão para você e sua comunidade fazerem parte desse movimento.
    • MONITOR: Mitigation of Natural Incidence Towards an increased Oceanic Resilience [Poster]

      MONITOR (Second Institute of Oceanography, MNR, 2023)
      The proposed project will make contributions to marine natural disaster prevention of countries in the Indo-Pacific region. The project will have major focus on education and intelligent collaborations among young scientists. There will be summer course being offered to students from all participating institutions every year, together with personnel exchange program. The technology for developing regional physical-biological modeling will be introduced and the operational forecasting systems for regional environments are expected to be developed in the coastal regions along the Indian and western Pacific Ocean.
    • Garotas STEM: Histórias que Inspiram 2022

      Birtwistle, Tom; Daste, Diana (British Council, 2023)
      A valorização de talentos e o empoderamento para indivíduos atingirem o seu potencial perpassa diferentes momentos da vida e abrange diferentes esferas sociais. O respeito à diversidade e a identificação de estratégias para facilitar acesso e oportunidade é um pilar fundamental para avançar num modelo de sociedade que visa o desenvolvimento sustentável nas esferas econômica, social, ambiental e humana. O programa Mulheres na Ciência (Women in STEM) do British Council surge como uma dessas estratégias, para contribuir com o universo de mulheres e meninas nas áreas STEM (sigla em inglês para ciência, tecnologia, engenharia e matemática)...
    • All-Atlantic Blue Schools Network

      Takahashi, Camila Keiko; de Andrade, Mariana M. (All-Atlantic Blue Schools Network, 2023)
      The All-Atlantic Blue Schools Network (AA-BSN) is a remarkable network implemented under the All-Atlantic Ocean Research and Innovation Alliance. It has really embraced the spirit of this science diplomacy process: Connect, Act and Collaborate. It started from an idea back in 2019 when several Ocean Literacy experts from along and across the Atlantic Ocean got together in scope of the AANChOR project, funded to implement the Belem Statement. It builds on the experience of the Blue School in Portugal and the AAORA Working Group on Ocean Literacy in scope of the Galway Statement. With 16 Atlantic countries engaged (as of January 2023), 28 National coordinators from 18 institutions, 455 schools reached, 125 178 students and 3 458 teachers engaged it is truly an example of the desire of the All-Atlantic Ocean Literacy community to get together, to effectively act through a very specific collaboration opportunity and to impact tomorrow’s generation! By connecting schools from Atlantic countries to raise and promote ocean literacy and society awareness AA-BSN is contributing to European, National and International strategies. The bottom-up process where each school builds its own project based on its socio-cultural-economic reality is, in my opinion, the basis for the success of AA-BSN. And imagine… all that was possible in less than two years and with a pandemic period in between. AA-BSN is really an inspiring joint activity from the Atlantic Ocean Literacy community! Congratulation to all the team and those engaged. Well done!
    • COESS: Seafloor seeps in Japan Sea. [Full Depth drone video]

      Chemistry, Observation, Ecology of Submarine Seeps (COESS) Project (University of Tokyo, Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, 2024)
      Seafloor journey around methane seeps
    • Atlas Aquatica: Empowering Scuba Diving Ecotourism for Marine Conservation and the Blue Economy

      Favoretto, Fabio; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Centro para la Biodiversidad Marina y la Conservación A.C. (Atlas Aquatica Project, 2023)
      Healthy oceans are essential for life, but a mere 2.9% are fully protected1. The question then arises - why is ocean protection so challenging? Among the many reasons is the economic allure of extractive activities which poses a barrier to alleviating human pressure on ocean areas. Marine protected areas (MPAs), primarily designed to preserve biodiversity, are often rationalized through a business lens and are expected to yield revenue by increasing tourists’ willingness to pay. However, MPAs are not business entities and require a set of enabling conditions to successfully reach their goals. In a successful marine protected area, a unit increase in natural capital results in a rise in tourist revenue. We developed a bioeconomic model to show how fully protecting diving sites can significantly enhance nature’s recovery and lead to larger revenues for the scuba diving industry. In Mexico, scuba diving generates as much revenue as the fishing industry, yet only 7% of the country’s diving sites are fully protected. Globally, the scuba diving industry generates up to $20 billion dollars per year, even though about half of the diving sites worldwide lack protection. Using global experiences, we designed a five-step bottom-up approach that scuba diving operators can use to amplify marine protection. This approach could catalyze the creation of stricter or new fullyprotected areas designed to incorporate existing businesses - a significant departure from the traditional business framework. The Atlas Aquatica initiative advocates for a significant shift in narrative to stimulate broader acceptance of marine protection worldwide. We aim to contribute to a sustainable blue economic growth and the 30x30 conservation target by promoting the protection of diving sites globally