Now showing items 21-40 of 36793

    • Quantitative analysis of water quality parameters and their influence on the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) culture: A case study of Rancong mariculture area in Lhokseumawe, Aceh, Indonesia.

      Yessy, Lailan Try; Ezraneti, Riri; Khalil, Munawar; Department of Marine Science, Universitas Malikusaleh (2024-03)
      Journal of Marine Studies
      Water quality is one of several aspects that affect the success of aquaculture business. This study analyzes water quality and assesses its impact on aquaculture enterprises in the Rancong pond region of Lhokseumawe City. The study ran from November to December 2018. The water quality of the Rancong pond was sampled directly and tested in multiple labs. The field survey and purposive sampling strategy separated the research location into four stations with three water sampling points. Temperature, salinity, turbidity, brightness, pH, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, total organic matter, BOD5, total ammonia nitrogen, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, lead (Pb), total Vibrio bacteria, total general bacteria, and phytoplankton types and abundance were measured. The suitability of water quality is assessed using descriptive analysis, scoring, and matching. The investigation indicates that the quality and maintenance of the source water are highly suitable (S1). Traditional vannamei shrimp ponds in Rancong, Lhokseumawe City, should be maintained as fisheries cultivation areas.
    • Claves ilustradas para la clasificación de los cangrejos marinos y estuarinos (Malacostraca: Brachyura) de Cuba IV.

      Ortiz, Manuel (2024)
      Revista de Investigaciones Marinas
      Se presenta la cuarta parte de las claves ilustradas para la clasificación de los cangrejos bra- quiuros (Crustacea, Brachyura) de Cuba. Se incluyen las claves y figuras originales de las especies pertenecientes a la Section Eubrachyura, Subsection Heterosomata (final) para la clasificación de las familias Domeciidae (un género y una especie); Panopeidae (10 géneros y 18 especies); Linnaeoxanthidae (un género y una especie); Pseudorhombilidae (11 géne- ros y 16 especies) y Xanthidae (17 géneros y 19 especies), citadas para Cuba.
    • New records of the invasive marine crab Charybdis hellerii (Crustacea, Brachyura) in Cuba

      Diez, Yander L.; Catalá, Alejandro (2024)
      Revista de Investigaciones Marinas
      The brachyuran crab Charybdis hellerii is originally from the Pacific; nevertheless, the spe- cies has been introduced to tropical waters globally. Its initial sighting in the Western Atlan- tic was documented in 1990 based on specimens collected in Cuba in 1987. In this paper, we present findings of C. hellerii from two localities in eastern Cuba: Santiago de Cuba and Taco bays. Up to this point, the species has solely been documented in estuaries in Cuba, and it likely exists throughout the entire archipelago. Given its feeding behaviour and extensive distribution, encompassing areas within the National Park Alejandro de Humboldt, this species can be key in the formulation of conservation plans for Cuban marine ecosystems.
    • 2022-2023 ECOP Asia Report.

      Roman, Raphael; Roman, Raphaël (UN Ocean Decade, Early Career Ocean Professionals (ECOP), 2023)
      The regional node of the ECOP Programme in Asia (hereinafter referred to as “ECOP Asia”) was informally established in June 2021, during the Virtual Early Career Ocean Professionals Day (V.ECOP Day). At the time, ECOP Asia was composed of a dozen volunteer members from countries across East, South and Southeast Asia, including Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines and the Republic of Korea. The core team met on a monthly basis with the aim of connecting interdisciplinary groups of ECOPs across the continent, and sharing knowledge and experience about the recently launched United Nations Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (2021-2030) (hereinafter referred to as the “UN Ocean Decade”). Members of the informal 2021 ECOP Asia group were particularly active and motivated to spread the word about ECOPs and the UN Ocean Decade. Among other contributions, they circulated the first pan-Asia ECOP survey in early Spring 2021 (with region- and country-specific results available in this report1), celebrated “World Oceans Day” on 8 June 2021 by sharing inspiring testimonials from ECOPs across India (video), made short awareness-raising interventions during online webinars and workshops, and moderated a Decade Action Incubator Session dedicated to ECOPs during the UN Decade Regional Kickoff Conference for the Western Pacific and its Adjacent Areas, a two-day conference co-sponsored by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (IOC-UNESCO) and its sub-commission for the Western Pacific (WESTPAC). The latter session provided perspectives on science communication, inviting speakers from different career stages and ocean sectors2 (video recording is available here). On November 2021, the IOC-UNESCO launched a call for individual consultants to support a variety of tasks related to the development of the regional dimensions of the ECOP Programme, seeking coordinators in Africa, Asia, Oceania and the Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS)3. A regional consultant was subsequently hired for Asia in mid-December 2021 and has remained in this position since then. The hiring process coincided with the official launch of the ECOP Programme website, including dedicated web pages for the first three regional and national ECOP nodes: Africa, Asia and Canada4. By November 2022, a national node in Japan and regional hub in Central America were also established, followed closely by a new regional chapter in the Caribbean. Throughout the first half of 2023, another nine additional national nodes have emerged from all over the world, including in Brazil, Italy, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, the Republic of Korea, Senegal, Togo and the United States. Several other ECOP chapters are waiting in the pipeline, currently building their own core teams, drafting concept notes, and engaging with their respective communities (e.g., Australia/New Zealand, Belgium, China, Europe, India, Liberia, Malaysia, Mexico, Mozambique, Spain and the United Kingdom). Extending from the Middle East all the way to Indonesia in Southeast Asia, and including the Russian Federation5, the ECOP Asia community grew significantly throughout 2022 and in the early months of 2023 (see section I). Figure 1 below provides a non-exhaustive list of 2022 activities and highlights that contributed to the development and expansion of ECOP Asia since the appointment of the regional consultant/coordinator. Table 1 lists more recent updates and achievements since November 2022, including ongoing work in 2023.
    • Assessing plastic pollution in Brazilian aquatic ecosystems:an integrated study of pollution in organisms and environments.

      Cardozo, Ana Lúcia Paz (Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Departamento de Biologia. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquáticos Continentais., 2024)
      Plastics are pervasive contaminants worldwide, accumulating from the poles to the equator, spanning pristine environments to deep ocean basins.This workexplores how seasonal variations in a floodplain influence the ingestion of plastics by freshwater fish and systematically examines trends and gaps in Brazilian research related to plastic pollution.Additionally, the potential relationship between anthropogenic activities and the amounts of plastic found in Brazilian aquatic environmentswas investigated.Among the 23 fish species analyzed in the Upper Paraná River floodplain, nine were ingested plastics, and the particles were associated with fishingactivity and domestic waste. Seasonality played a crucial role in the amounts of plastic ingested by these species, with the highest number of particles recorded during the wet season. As for trends and gaps in Brazilian research on plastic pollution, a substantial number of publications related to marine environments, microplastics, and fishwas identified. Conversely, freshwater environments and invertebrates are underexplored.Considering the distribution of studies within Brazilian biomes, the Pantanaland Cerrado had the lowest number of publications—an alarming trend considering the significant rivers and basins they house.Finally, themodels were unable to find strong and significant correlations between the number of plastics and anthropogenic activities in Brazilian municipalities.The lack of significant relationships may be attributed to the limitations of our dataset, specificallydue to the low number of studies.Nevertheless, other factors influenced the quantities of plastic detected.In biotic samples, the number of ingested plastics was influenced by the animal group, with reptiles, birds, and fish being the most affected groups. For abiotic samples, the type of environment emerged as a significant factor.In sediment samples, the quantity of plastics was higher in estuarine and freshwater environments. In water samples, the quantity of plastics was higher exclusively in freshwater environments.The finds of this workcontribute to new research on plastic pollution in Brazilian aquatic environments, expanding theunderstanding of the dynamics of plastics in freshwater environments and their interaction with various organisms.
    • Ecological characteristic of hermit crabs in Lhokseumawe mangrove forest, Aceh, Indonesia

      Fitriani, Fitriani; Erlangga, Erlangga; Syahrial, Syahrial; Ezraneti, Riri; Department of Marine Science, Universitas Malikusaleh (2024-03)
      Journal of Marine Studies
      The study was conducted between August and September of 2021 in order to determine the density, ecological index, distribution pattern, geographic distribution, environmental factors, and the relationship between hermit crabs and environmental factors. Hermit crabs were gathered using a quadratic transect and sample plots, while environmental variables were measured in situ. PCA and CCA multivariate statistics were used to determine the characteristics and correlation between hermit crabs and environmental factors. Hermit crabs were discovered to be comprised of two species (Clibanariuslongitarsus and C. infraspinatus) and one family (Diogenidae), with the highest density found in the C. longitarsus species (1.22 ± 0.57 – 4.68 3.53 ind/m2), diversity index is categorized as moderate (2.01), the geographical distribution is abundant (>80%), and environmental factors are categorized as good. In addition, Stations I and II have high DO, TOM, mangrove density, C. longitarsus, and C. infraspinatus parameters, whereas Station III has high salinity, pH, and temperature, with salinity, mangrove density, and TOM being the most influential parameters on hermit crab density.
    • The functional diversity of fishes in a Neotropical reservoir based on intraspecific trait variability: trends on community assembly rules and biological invasions.

      Alves, Jonas Campaner (Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Departamento de Biologia. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquáticos Continentais., 2024)
      An essential question in ecology relies on whether to analyze functional diversity through species traits or to explore the traits' variability at the individual level. Traditionally, several studies have been based on unique values to represent species traits, assuming that intraspecific trait variation (ITV) has minimal impact on overall community trait variability. However, ITV can significantly influence assessments of individual and species adaptation to environmental disturbances, providing insights concerning density patterns, speciation, dispersal, and biological interactions. Thus, the importance of ITV was assessed from two perspectives: (i) community assembly rules and (ii) biological invasions. A dataset comprising ten morphological traits related to habitat use and diet of 5226 fishes belonging to 49 species that occupy the marginal areas of the Itaipu Reservoir (Brazil) was used as a case study. First, the relative contributions of ITV and species turnover (interspecific variability) to overall trait variability and the strength of internal and external filters on fish assemblages using individual traits were investigated. Species turnover accounted for most trait variance within assemblages, but ITV also played an important role for specific traits. Internal filters such as competition highly influence the functional diversity of fish species in an old reservoir. Alternatively, external filters (i.e., regional processes) did not present significant effects on functional traits, which may be related to their greater influence during the reservoir's filling phase. The difference between the functional niche occupied by native species and non-native ones, and the impact of non-native species dominance on the functional diversity patterns of native assemblages (indexed by functional richness, functional evenness, functional divergence, and functional redundancy) was also investigated. It was observed that the functional niche occupied by native species differs from non-native species, suggesting that non-native species have traits that enable them to exploit resources differently. Non-native species presented negative effects on the functional attributes of native fish populations, even in highly impacted environments such as reservoirs, reinforcing the importance of understanding the dynamics between native and non-native species in specific ecosystems. It is expected that the results of this study will assist in the development of public policies in the area of reservoir conservation, offering new insights into critical mechanisms associated with the biodiversity of the marginal regions of reservoirs that are exploited by human activities.
    • State of the Ocean Report 2024.

      Ahern, Molly; Aliaga, Bernardo; Alis, Victoria; Fanjul, Enrique Alvarez; Al-Yamani, Faiza Y; Angove, Michael; Ansong, Joseph Onwona; Appeltans, Ward; Bahurel, Pierre; Bailey, Rick; et al. (UNESCO-IOC, 2024)
      The State of the Ocean Report (StOR) has the ambition to inform policymakers about the state of the ocean and to stimulate research and policy actions towards ‘the ocean we need for the future we want’, contributing to the 2030 Agenda and in particular SDG 14, which reads ‘Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources’, as well as other global processes such as the UNFCCC, the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. Structured around the seven UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development Outcomes, the Report provides important information about the achievements of the UN Ocean Decade and, in the longer term, about ocean well-being. The StOR will be used to inform policy and administrative priorities and identify research focus areas that need to be strengthened or developed.
    • Ocean Decade Vision 2030 White Papers - Challenge 10: Restoring Society's Relationship with the Ocean.

      Glithero, L.D.; Bridge, N.; Hart, N.; Mann-Lang, J.; McPhie, R.; Paul, K.; Peebler, A.; Wiener, C.; Yen, C.; Kelly, R.; et al. (UNESCO-IOC, 2024)
      By 2030, success for Ocean Decade Challenge No. 10 will be evidenced through a culture shift in the ocean community leading to implicit understanding that ocean threats are an outcome of human behaviour. This will require a shift in the way that ocean science, in the broad sense as defined in the Decade, is formulated, practiced, and communicated to ensure that all sectors of society have strengthened emotional connections with the ocean, and understand the vital role that the ocean plays in human and planetary well-being, including climate stability. All members of society across regions, sectors, and scales will have increased motivation, capability, and opportunity to make decisions and behave in ways that ensure a healthy ocean. By 2030, success for Ocean Decade Challenge No. 10 will include fulfilment of critical science and knowledge gaps: Increased priority and practice of science that embraces multiple knowledge systems and transdisciplinary collaboration Increased priority of Indigenous-led research, consistent with the supporting articles of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP), inherent rights, and signed treaty obligations with Indigenous Nations Increased priority of marine social sciences, particularly: public perceptions ocean research marine citizenship and identity research behavioural science research linked to ocean-climate education and communications research on how ocean literacy can be measured and monitored over time, and the impacts of an ocean literate society on ocean health research on ocean literacy as a policy tool science communication through multiple approaches including immersive technology, storytelling, and the arts Success will also depend on the generation, sharing, and use of the following priority datasets: human-ocean connection/human-ocean values dataset(s) pro-ocean behaviour change methodologies, case studies, and effective practices impact mapping of regional and key global ocean literacy initiatives ocean culture mapping that includes a global body of evidence (contextual, local knowledge) that demonstrates and supports cultural engagement as an enabler of ocean-human health. It will include the development of: a co-designed theory of change to action key drivers of Challenge 10, in which regional expertise helps guide the initial and ongoing strategic direction of the newly launched Decade Coordinating Office (DCO), Connecting People and Ocean a guiding portfolio of best practices on research co-design, co-production, co-implementation, and co-evaluation, respectfully bridging different forms of knowledge, ensuring mutual recognition and benefits, and nurturing long-term relationships with each other and nature a collaborative global, multi-dimensional ocean literacy survey tool (i.e., Ocean & Society Survey) to measure ocean connection and values, as well as motivators, enablers, barriers to action and behaviour change a global network of ocean communications experts and regional ocean communications communities of practice to support training, accreditation, upskilling, knowledge exchange, and impact measurement a global network of ocean-climate education experts (formal, informal, and non-formal) to support teacher training, certification programmes, and knowledge exchange a Global Blue Schools Network, building off the All-Atlantic and European Blue Schools Networks, to bridge practitioner best practices with research and training a global framework for sharing successful community projects that demonstrate practices and solutions specific to cultural connections, heritage, language, and place-based innovations for ocean-human health.
    • Ocean Decade Vision 2030 White Papers – Challenge 9: Skills, Knowledge, Technology, and Participatory Decision-Making for All.

      Arbic, B.K.; Mahu, E.; Alexander, K.; Buchan, P.M.; Hermes, J.; Kidwai, S.; Kostianaia, E.; Li, L.; Lin, X.; Mahadeo, S.; et al. (UNESCO-IOC, 2024)
      Challenge 9 aims to ensure comprehensive capacity development and equitable access to data, information, knowledge, technology, and participatory decision-making across all aspects of ocean science and for all stakeholders. It is based on the understanding that everyone has something to contribute through shared knowledge, resources, ideas, or partnerships. Challenge 9 therefore is focused on equity and justice in access to capacity, resources, and decision making. By 2030, success for Ocean Decade Challenge 9 will be reached when: Technical, transdisciplinary, and transversal skills required by scientists, resource users, educators, communicators, managers, and policymakers, to deliver the Decade’s challenges, are strengthened and evenly distributed with an emphasis on least developed countries (LDCs) and Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and other under-represented groups. Funding mechanisms, multi-directional partnerships, multi-directional partnerships, infrastructure, and technology required to deliver the Decade’s challenges across regions and communities are enhanced and evenly distributed with emphasis on promoting access to LDCs and SIDS and on promoting greater cooperation between regions. Users and stakeholders from currently under-represented groups (i.e., women; ECOPs; Indigenous communities; LDCs and SIDS; people with disabilities; and others) are well-represented and participatory in ocean science, communication, management, decision making, and policy within the Decade framework. Wider promotion of ethically-driven actions and access to open-source software, ocean data, knowledge, and information among different users of the ocean has been achieved, and language barriers/restrictions have been mediated, including sharing knowledge in forms that are well articulated by non-scientific audiences. Recognition for Indigenous and local knowledge and traditional beliefs that promote conservation receives backing by the Decade and is integrated into all the Decade challenges. Success will include fulfilment of the following critical capacity development needs: skills enhancement; representation and meaningful participation; equitable funding; infrastructure; technology; access to data and information; publishing of research findings; better representation of scientists and knowledge from LDCs, SIDS and other under-represented groups in international publications and decision-making bodies and procedures; and promotion of the use of multiple languages in ocean science communication.
    • Ocean Decade Vision 2030 White Papers – Challenge 8: Create a digital representation of the ocean.

      Calewaert, J.-B.; Sierra-Correa, P.C.; McMeel, O.; Busumprah, P.T.; Crosman, K.; de Boer, G.; Haddad, T.; Hall, S.; Jegat, V.; Kågesten, G.; et al. (UNESCO-IOC, 2024)
      Ocean Decade Challenge 8 of the United Nations Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development 2021-2030 (the ‘Ocean Decade’) seeks to create an adaptive and dynamic digital representation of the ocean to make the ocean accessible to a broader community, to enhance decision-making and to support sustainable ocean management. While creating a comprehensive digital representation of the Ocean is the ultimate objective of Decade Challenge 8, the focus in this White Paper is on delivering concrete outcomes and the transformational change needed to create the enabling environment and initial digital content, by 2030, that will allow us to fully deliver on the ambitions of Challenge 8 on the longer term. An Implementation Plan (IP) for the Ocean Decade’s Data and Information Strategy is currently under development by the Data Strategy Implementation Group (DSIG). This IP will outline how data systems participating in the Ocean Decade can co-create a distributed, robust, and collaborative ‘digital ecosystem’ that leverages open, scalable, easily implementable, and responsive technologies and management solutions. An interoperable, distributed data and information sharing system must be both deployed and maintained to allow the realization of Challenge 8, addressing specific challenges such as data interoperability, accessibility, and inclusivity. Additionally, potential issues related to data privacy, cybersecurity, and equitable access to technological infrastructure should be addressed to ensure the comprehensive development of the strategic ambition. In developing the Strategic Ambition for Challenge 8, we consider the data and information needs and priorities identified by the other Decade Challenges and their working groups, as our primary users (and contributors), representing as they do the key sustainability challenges for the Decade, and encompassing all relevant stakeholders. Guided by the Decade’s ambition to ‘leave no one behind’ we recognize that this challenge must deliver outputs that are relevant and useful for the global ocean science community, and in fact by extension the widest possible range of users and stakeholders, including the eight billion people on this planet, who should be able to access and use what is delivered by the Decade in ways adapted to their needs and capacities, if so desired. By 2030, the Strategic Ambition for Ocean Decade Challenge 8 is to have in place the enabling environment for the creation of and access to an increasing number of digital representations and twin applications of the Ocean as well as the underpinning data and information needed to develop them, delivering at minimum 10 societally relevant 0global base-layers accessible via a global online Digital Atlas, complemented by a minimum of 10 local use cases (prioritizing SIDS and LDCs) to address challenges in using and contributing to the Decade’s distributed digital ecosystem and to demonstrate and stress test its relevance, effectiveness and inclusiveness.
    • Ocean Decade Vision 2030 White Papers – Challenge 7: Sustainably Expand the Global Ocean Observing System.

      Miloslavich, P.; O’Callaghan, J.; Heslop, E.; McConnell, T.; Heupel, M.; Satterthwaite, E.; Lorenzoni, L.; Schloss, I.; Belbeoch, M.; Rome, N.; et al. (UNESCO-IOC, 2024)
      The strategic ambition is to develop an operational, comprehensive, and resourced system that delivers priority observations and information to guide mitigation and adaptation responses to climate change, sustains ocean health within a sustainable blue economy, and facilitates informed decision-making for science, business and society. Such a system is envisioned to be co-designed, fit-for-purpose, multidisciplinary, geographically expanded, responsive, and sustainable in time, delivering ocean observations to all nations and users, prioritising societal needs. Transforming ocean observations into accessible information will require integration across disciplines, across national observing systems, along the value chain, and across stakeholders. Innovative technology approaches and a diversified set of actors and approaches will be required for success. The Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) of IOC UNESCO can provide the implementation framework for Challenge 7 and the UN Ocean Decade provides the opportunity and vehicle for transformation. Five recommendations have been identified to fulfil the strategic ambition of Ocean Decade Challenge 7. Act now on known observational needs. Upgrade and expand ocean observing capacity in poorly-observed areas such as polar regions, island nations and territories, coastal areas of developing nations, coastal systems that are rapidly changing, and the under-observed deep ocean. Thematic priorities for ocean observing by 2030 should focus on key climate risk and adaptation needs, extreme events, coastal services for ocean management, ocean carbon, marine pollution, biogeochemistry, and biodiversity. Adopt new economic thinking. Establish new and sustained financing mechanisms for global ocean observing, including resourcing for Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and Least Developed Countries (LDCs). Use economic models for ocean investment to diversify and accelerate investment in ocean observing and infrastructure from new actors. Partnerships are key. Increase national, regional and global coordination, focusing on co-design and partnerships. Improved coordination that uses the GOOS framework to ensure standards, best practices for a sustainably expanded GOOS. Diversify partnerships across sectors (economic, public, private, and philanthropic) and embrace the abilities and needs of the different stakeholders to co-design, co-develop, and co-deliver observations that translate into the information required by these sectors. Technology and innovation will be a pillar. Integrate and harmonise observations across observing platforms (in situ, satellite, emerging networks). Develop innovative in situ, autonomous and cost-effective technologies to maximise reach, ensuring standardisation and best practices. Technology barriers still need to be lowered to ensure everyone has equitable access to observing technology and has the ability to use these assets. Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) tools will provide user-ready information from integrated observations to democratise information for users. Expanded, capable, and diversified workforce. Expand and diversify the workforce of skilled and trained ocean professionals. Training and capacity development will be critical across the observing ‘ecosystem’ outlined in the Framework for Ocean Observing (FOO), from data collection to data analysis and modelling, and for data use and application.
    • Ocean Decade Vision 2030 White Papers – Challenge 6: Increase Community Resilience to Ocean Hazards.

      Pinardi, N.; Kumar Tummala, S.; Alvarez Fanjul, E.; Ansong, J.K.; Burgos, A.; Cabana, D.; Canals, P.; Coppini, G.; Duffy-Mayers, L.; Harley, M.; et al. (UNESCO-IOC, 2024)
      By 2030, successful achievement of Ocean Decade Challenge No. 6 will require demonstrating substantial advancements within the global community towards enhancing their resilience to coastal and ocean hazards. This includes implementing two crucial elements: (1) establishing comprehensive 'people-centered' early warning systems capable of addressing multiple hazards, and (2) devising adaptation strategies that specifically target risks associated with the ocean, including those linked to climate change. These endeavours will play a pivotal role in guiding sustainable practices in ocean planning. Success will also hinge on addressing critical gaps in scientific understanding and knowledge across important components such as risk assessment and risk reduction, in addition to putting in place robust institutional mechanisms for implanting novel solutions that contribute to coastal resilience. Some key elements to be addressed in this context include: (i) gathering and generating observational and modelling datasets relevant to risk assessment, including downscaled climate scenarios for coastal regions, within robust data-sharing frameworks; (ii) promoting interdisciplinary and international research and innovation to tackle challenges comprehensively, with a focus on methodologies like Digital Twin approaches; (iii) improving standards for risk communication at both national and international levels; (iv) fostering partnerships at various scales involving local communities, public and private disaster risk reduction entities, governmental bodies, and academic institutions; (v) building capacity in research and communication to cultivate a shared understanding of coastal resilience strategies; and (vi) enhancing resilient infrastructure and promoting sustainable resource management along coastlines. It is imperative to establish partnerships with existing international UN programs dedicated to disaster risk reduction and coastal resilience. Strengthening connections with UN Decade Actions through Decade Coordination Offices and Decade Collaboration Centers is of utmost importance for effective coordination and collaboration. Based on the above strategic ambition it is also suggested that the formulation of the Ocean Decade Challenge could be modified as follows: Increase community resilience to ocean and coastal risks
    • Ocean Decade Vision 2030 White Papers – Challenge 1: Understand And Beat Marine Pollution.

      Hatje, V.; Rayfuse, R.; Polejack, P.; Goddard, C.; Jiang, C.; Jones, D.; Faloutsos, D.; Fiedler, H.; Akrofi, J.; Sheps, K.; et al. (UNESCO-IOC, 2024)
      By 2030, the success of Ocean Decade Challenge No.1 ‘Understand and Beat Marine Pollution’ will be demonstrated by the generation of scientifically sound data enabling a holistic understanding of the extent and impact of pollution across the land-ocean continuum, thereby supporting the achievement of a cleaner and healthier ocean where all ecosystems and their inhabitants thrive free from the impacts of marine pollution, allowing for their full functioning and service provision. This success will be based on completion of a comprehensive review of all available evidence about marine pollution, including an analysis of data gaps and the development and implementation of strategies for filling those gaps, as well as a comprehensive analysis of solutions for addressing and preventing the negative effects of marine pollution. Achieving this success will require knitting together existing and new data sets using AI and other technologies, identifying priority pollutants and areas for action, and providing globally consistent monitoring, data collection, storage and sharing protocols. Success will further be demonstrated through the establishment of new connections and partnerships among users across the public - private spectrum that lead to the funding, development and implementation of new technologies and projects aimed at monitoring, controlling, reducing, and/or mitigating marine pollution from any source, including the creation and sustainability of a global network of strategically positioned sentinel stations and regional laboratory hubs for sustained, long-term monitoring of marine pollution. Success will include fulfilment of the following critical knowledge gaps: • a comprehensive and holistic understanding of the impacts of priority pollutants (e.g., pollutants found or expected to emerge in high concentrations, or with high toxicity, or with significant adverse effects on biota or human health) across the land to ocean continuum; • a better understanding of the sources, sinks, fate and impacts of all pollutants, including the pollutants of emerging concern; • improved knowledge on the distribution and impacts of marine pollution, particularly in the Global South and deep ocean waters, which currently represent the largest geographical gaps. and the following priority datasets gaps: • long-term time series of marine pollutants; • baseline and toxicity data of pollutants across the land-ocean continuum; • data on the impacts of the co-occurrence of multiple pollutants; • data on the effects of climate change on the toxicity, bioavailability and impacts of multiple co-existent pollutants. • It will include development of: • a global network of strategically positioned sentinel stations for continuous, long-term monitoring; • cost-effective, real-time monitoring systems and technologies for tracking pollutant sources, distribution, and transfers across the land-ocean continuum; • a global network of regional laboratory hubs focused on generating high-quality data, promoting capacity building and facilitating technology transfer; • training programs on harmonized protocols for the acquisition, reporting and recording of quality-controlled data on marine pollution; • environmentally robust new technologies and processes for the control and mitigation of marine pollution.
    • Diagnóstico de la erosión en la zona costera del Caribe colombiano

      Posada Posada, Blanca Oliva; Henao Pineda, William; Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras "José Benito Vives de Andréis" (Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras "José Benito Vives de Andréis", 2007)
      La presente obra expone el diagnóstico, modificado y complementado con un capítulo relativo al tema del manejo de la erosión costera, el cual aspira a ser una guía para los administradores locales y regionales y los planificadores del desarrollo, para orientar decisiones respecto Los mapas de esta publicación cubren una franja definida como zona costera, cuyos límites engloban el 100% de la cobertura de manglar y bosques de transición, así como las lagunas costeras hasta la cota máxima del nivel de la orilla, los terrenos emergidos de unidades de reserva y los centros urbanos costeros, amén de una zona de amortiguamiento de 2 km. En el mar, el límite llega hasta las 12 millas náuticas o la isóbata de los 200 m, lo que ocurra primero. Por tal motivo contemplan no sólo las unidades geomorfológicas del borde costero, sino también las facies sedimentarias de la plataforma tal y como figuran reportadas por los mapas de Dirección General Marítima (DIMAR).
    • Ocean Decade Vision 2030 White Papers – Challenge 5: Unlock Ocean-Based Solutions to Climate Change.

      Sabine, C.; Robinson, C.; Isensee, K.; Bastian, L.; Batten, S.; Bellerby, R.; Blasiak, R.; Laarissa, S.; Lira Loarca, A.; McGeachy, C.; et al. (UNESCO-IOC, 2024)
      By 2030, success for Ocean Decade Challenge number 5 will be marked by a move toward a more sustainable and climate-resilient ocean that aligns with the United Nations’ sustainable development goals. Crucially, the success of Challenge 5 is intricately linked to the outcomes of Challenges 1 to 4, which focus on understanding climate-ocean interactions, controlling marine pollution, conserving biodiversity, and ensuring sustainable food production. Success will include fulfillment of critical science and knowledge gaps with respect to climate adaptation and mitigation. Both approaches need to be addressed in parallel. Key mitigation approaches include the development of marine renewable energies, reduction in marine pollution, the development of blue carbon ecosystems, and marine carbon dioxide removal (mCDR). Adaptation approaches include increased ocean literacy/awareness; co-designed governance and co-operation; improved risk reduction policies; and improved predictive capability of ocean, climate, and weather forecasts. Challenge 5 was reported as one of the most commonly cited Challenges for knowledge uptake in the Decade. However, important gaps still remain in terms of the geographical scope of the actions under this and other challenges.
    • Ocean Decade Vision 2030 White Papers – Challenge 4: Develop a Sustainable and Equitable Ocean Economy.

      Haugan, P.; Rhodes, A.; Hollaway, E.; Abdul Rahman, M.; Appiott, J.; DeBeauville-Scott, S.; Gelcich, S.; Gericksky, E.; Gonzales-Quiros, R.; Harms, E.; et al. (UNESCO-IOC, 2024)
      This draft White Paper is one of a series of ten White Papers all of which have been authored by an expert Working Group. Accompanied by a synthesis report authored by the Decade Coordination Unit, it will be discussed at the 2024 Ocean Decade Conference before being finalised and published. 1.2 Strategic Ambition of Ocean Decade Challenge No. 4 By 2030, success for Ocean Decade Challenge No. 4: Develop a sustainable and equitable ocean economy, will be marked by significant advancements in establishing a knowledge-driven framework for informed decision-making and policy formulation. There will be enhanced collaboration among stakeholders, ensuring diverse community engagement and equitable benefit sharing while acknowledging and prioritising the culture, identity, and rights of IPLC that have historically depended on and thrived alongside ocean resources. Strategic mobilisation of blue finance will support investments in sustainable coastal and marine infrastructure, innovative technologies, and conservation efforts, reinforcing the economic foundation. Key policies and governance frameworks promoting sustainability and equity will be in place, alongside a balanced and reflective approach, laying the groundwork for a resilient and inclusive ocean economy. This success will be underpinned by improved data accessibility and capacity-sharing efforts, fostering a shared understanding and commitment to sustainable ocean use. Success will include fulfilment of the following critical science and knowledge gaps: addressing the interface between knowledge systems, policy implementation, and public-private partnerships to enable informed decision-making, focusing on biodiversity restoration, protection, and sustainable management as foundational elements of a sustainable and equitable ocean economy, and ensuring the inclusion of local and indigenous knowledge alongside environmental sustainability and social equity. The following priority datasets gaps will be targeted: comprehensive and up-to-date data on both human activities and state of the environment supporting informed and equitable decision-making and ensuring stakeholder and rights holder engagement in data capture and knowledge co-production. It will include robust capacity development and sharing as well as knowledge exchange to deepen understanding of ocean-human activity interconnections, emphasising investment in context-specific education, training, and research programs, and the integration of appropriate technology and innovation to support a sustainable, equitable, and resilient ocean economy and ensuring that future generations can benefit from the ocean's diverse resources and opportunities.
    • Ocean Decade Vision 2030 White Papers – Challenge 3: Ocean Contributions to Nourishing the World’s Population.

      Agostini, V.; Olsen, E.; Tiffay, C.; Alison, E.; Coetzee, J.; Cojocaru, A.L.; Costello, c.; Darias, M.J.; Fabinyi, M.; Fulton, B.; et al. (UNESCO-IOC, 2024)
      This draft White Paper has been prepared as part of the Vision 2030 process of the United Nations (UN) Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (hereafter, Ocean Decade). The Vision 2030 process aims to identify tangible measures of success for each of the ten Ocean Decade Challenges by 2030. From a starting point of existing initiatives underway in the Ocean Decade and beyond, and through a lens of priority user needs, the process determines critical gaps in science and knowledge, needs for capacity development, priority datasets, infrastructure, and technology for each Challenge. Focusing investments in science and knowledge to address these needs will help ensure progress towards meeting each critical Challenge by the end of the Ocean Decade in 2030. The results of the process will contribute to the scoping of future Decade Actions, identification of resource mobilisation priorities, and ensure relevance of the Challenges over time. This draft White Paper is one of a series of ten White Papers, all of which have been authored by an expert Working Group and discussed at the 2024 Ocean Decade Conference. A synthesis report, authored by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO/IOC), will accompany the White Papers. With a substantial portion of people depending on the ocean as a primary source of nutrition and livelihood, a significant challenge comes into focus: How can we ensure that the ocean's resources continue to effectively nourish an expanding global population? The Ocean Decade responds to this critical concern through its Challenge 3: “Sustainably nourish the global population”.
    • Ocean Decade Vision 2030 White Papers – Challenge 2: Protect and Restore Ecosystems and Biodiversity.

      Muller-Karger, F.E.; Hwai, A. T. S.; Allcock, L.; Appeltans, W.; Barón Aguilar, C.; Blanco, A.; Bograd, S.J.; Buttigieg, P.; Costello, M. J.,; Darnaude, A.; et al. (UNESCO-IOC, 2024)
      This draft White Paper has been prepared as part of the Vision 2030 process being undertaken in the framework of the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development. The Vision 2030 process aims to achieve a common and tangible measure of success for each of the ten Ocean Decade Challenges by 2030. From a starting point of existing initiatives underway in the Ocean Decade and beyond, and through a lens of priority user needs, the process determines priority datasets, critical gaps in science and knowledge, and needs in capacity development, infrastructure and technology required for each Challenge to ensure that it can be fulfilled by the end of the Ocean Decade in 2030. The results of the process will contribute to the scoping of future Decade Actions, identification of resource mobilization priorities, and ensuring the ongoing relevance of the Challenges over time. The process identifies achievable recommendations that can be implemented in the context of the Decade, or more broadly before 2030 to achieve the identified strategic ambition and indicators that will be used to measure progress. This draft White Paper is one of a series of ten White Papers all of which have been authored by an expert Working Group. Accompanied by a synthesis report authored by the Decade Coordination Unit, this white paper was discussed at the 2024 Ocean Decade Conference (Barcelona. Spain). Input received from diverse groups through public consultation and at the Conference was reviewed and incorporated as relevant.